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«T.V. Sidorenko Professional English Networks and Telecommunications It is recommended for publishing as a study aid by the Editorial Board of Tomsk Polytechnic ...»

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TOMSK POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY

T.V. Sidorenko

Professional English

Networks and Telecommunications

It is recommended for publishing as a study aid

by the Editorial Board of Tomsk Polytechnic University

Tomsk Polytechnic University Publishing House

2011

УДК 811.111: 004 (0.75.8)

ББК Ш 143.21 – 923 C 342

Sidorenko T.V.

C 342 English for IT-students: course book / T.V. Sidorenko; Tomsk Polytechnic University. – Tomsk: TPU Publishing House, 2011. – 195 p.

The course Professional English is designed for Master students who study the major «Networks and Telecommunications». The textbook is structured into three modules which are split up into units. Apart units focused on profession-oriented communication there are three sections devoted to academic skills development that cover such important aspects of technical communication as knowledge and abilities to read graphs and visuals, to write a research paper, and to organize teamwork. The course can be characterized with considerable flexibility that implies not consequential studying of modules. They can be selected according to students‘ needs and wants and to teacher‘s managerial strategy. Additional phrase bank for writing a scientific paper and glossaries on the relevant topics for the major are organized in six Appendices at the end of the textbook.

УДК 811.111: 004 (0.75.8) ББК Ш 143.21 – 923 C Reviewer Associate professor of Tomsk Pedagogical University O.N.Igna © STE HPT TPU, © Sidorenko T.V., © Design. Tomsk Polytechnic University Publishing House, Content Language Unit/Title Reading Writing Speaking P.

Practice 1. The Internet Reading for Matching Describing a process 5 Evolution specific info Word formation (history) Searching for the info 2. Services Reading and Paraphrasing Giving advice on Provided by the note-taking Tense revision technical problems 12 Internet Describing Module 1: The Internet functions and purpose 3. The World Reading and Paraphrasing Making a Wide Web note-taking Word formation presentation on a 17 Terminology professional topic practice Matching 4. Extranet/ Reading for Choosing a Making analysis and Intranet specific info synonym providing Linking ideas explanation Word formation Reading and Making up a Case study Academic Skills note-taking graph Finding a better Development:



Graphs and Vocabulary on solution Diagrams in how to describe Technical visuals Project activity Module 2: Telecommunications and Networks Module 3: Multimedia Networks and Communications Appendices

194 References

Unit 1.

The Internet Evolution. historical background. Learn the Unit 2.

Services Provided by the Internet. allow users to view and search the Unit 3.

Unit 4.

Warm up questions:

1) Do you know when the Internet first appeared in your country? What was its original purpose?

2) How different was it from the resource that is in use today?

3) The Internet has changed the way we currently communicate. Does the Internet perform the function it was originally designed for?

4) Can you describe how the Internet is structured and works?

Reading Activity Pre-reading Task 1. Answer the questions below. Then read the text and check your answers.

1) When was the Internet developed?

2) Who really invented the Internet and what functions it was supposed to 3) What is the information revolution? When did it happen?

How do you understand the expression the Internet, as an integrating force, has melded the technology of communications?

5) Should the Internet be regulated, if so, by whom?

Task 2. Read the text about the history of the Internet and answer the questions to discuss below.

In the new Information Age, we are learning to magnify brainpower by putting the power of computation wherever we need it, and to provide information services on a global basis.

Computer resources are infinitely flexible tools networked together, they allow us to generate, exchange, share and manipulate information in an uncountable number of ways. The Internet, as an integrating force, has melded the technology of communications and computing to provide instant connectivity and global information services to all its users at a very low cost.

Many people think that the Internet is a recent innovation, when in fact the essence of it has been around for over a quarter century. The Internet began as one network, called the ARPAnet (Advanced Research Project Agency), a U.S. Department of Defense project to create a nationwide computer network. The network was a 1969 U.S. government experiment in packet-switched networking. The original goals of the project were to allow researchers to share computing resources and exchange information, regardless to their locations, and to create a resilient, fault-tolerant, widearea network for military communication. The original ARPAnet split into two networks in the early 1980s, the ARPAnet and Milnet (unclassified military networks), but connections between the two networks allowed communications to continue.

During the next two decades, the network that evolved was used primarily by academic institutions, scientists and the government for research and communications. The appeal of the Internet to these bodies was obvious, as it allowed disparate institutions to connect to each others‘ computing systems and databases, as well as share data via e-mailing.

While much of the Western world jumped online in the 1990s, Russia, embroiled in political turmoil and growing poverty, missed the Internet revolution. By 2003, analysts predict that Russia will have only 11 million Internet users. As a result, e-commerce, both business-to-business and business-to-consumer, has not grown rapidly.

While Russians have access to the entire World Wide Web, most spend their time online within the Russian language portions of the networks, where email addresses and Web sites are denoted by the suffix.ru – hence Runet (the name Russians called the Internet). People in Russia, regardless of location, are highly educated and want to get online and be a part of the worldwide flow of information. Now the Internet in Russia is an open and sharing environment that is remarkably free of censorship, a tribute to its roots in the academic and research communities.

The underpinnings of the Internet are formed by the global interconnection of hundreds, of thousands, of otherwise independent computers and information systems. What makes this interconnection possible is the use of a set of communication standards, procedures and formats in common among the networks and the various devices and computational facilities connected to them. The procedures by which computers communicate with each other are called protocols. While this infrastructure is steadily evolving to include new capabilities, the protocols initially used by the Internet are called the TCP/IP protocols, named after the two protocols that formed the principal basis for Internet operation.

Interconnecting computers is an inherently digital problem. Computer process and exchange digital information mean that they use a discrete mathematical binary or two-valued language of 1s and 0s. For communication purposes, such information is mapped into continuous electrical or optical waveforms. The use of digital signaling allows accurate regeneration and reliable recovery of the underlying bits. We use the terms computer, computer resources and computation to mean not only traditional computers, but also devices that can be controlled digitally over a network, information resources such as mobile programs.

Questions to discuss:

1) What was the original purpose of inventing the Internet, according to this passage?

2) What was the reason that influenced the Internet popularity in 1992?

3) Do you agree with the statement of Ted Nelson simplicity has never happened on itself, it must be designed? Prove your answer.

4) Why were the Russians considered to be Internet non-literate for a long time? Has the situation changed Did the experts‘ predictions come true regarding to a number of Internet users in Russia by 2003?

6) What is Runet?

7) What makes possible communication between two and more independent computers?

Language Practice Activity Task 3. Study the following sentences with the focus on the words in bold and replace them with the appropriate synonyms on the right.

1) The Internet is revolutionizing our changing 2) The global environment is drawing picturing 3) Computer resources are infinitely absolutely 4) The Internet, as an integrating compatible 5) The original goals of the project were errorless to create a fault-tolerant, wide-area reliable network for military communication. low-sensitivity Task 4. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate adverbs from the list below.

Commonly, reasonably, primarily, manually, increasingly, infinitely, abruptly, inherently 1) Computer resources are flexible tools networked together.

2) During the next two decades, the network that evolved was used by academic institutions and scientists for research and communications.

3) The nature of the Internet changed in 1992.

4) Interconnecting computers is an digital problem.

5) The telephone network started out with operators who connected telephones to each other.

Task 5. Continue the following sentences.

The history of every great invention is based on ……..

The growth of the Internet was attributed to by the lack of …… It originally linked a large technical audience composed of ….

The original goal of ARPAnet was …..

5) The modern century in its relation to the Internet could be characterized 6) Every year the estimated population of the Internet users is growing by What makes this interconnection possible is ……….

8) The procedures by which computers communicate with each other are called ……..

We use the terms computer, computer resources and computation to mean ……….

Task 6. Use the words on the right in the appropriate form that fits the space in the text.

THE INTERNET HISTORY

As we approach a new millennium, the Internet is 1. our society, our economy and our REVOLUSIONIZE 2._ systems. No one knows for certain TECHNOLOGY how far, or in what direction, the Internet will evolve. But no one should 3. _ its ESTIMATE importance.

Over the past century and a half, important technological 4. _ have created a global DEVELOP environment that is drawing the people of the world closer and closer together.

The nature of the Internet changed abruptly in 1992, when the U.S. government began pulling out of network 5., and commercial entities MANAGE offered Internet access to the general public for the first time. This change in focus marked the beginning of the Internet‘s 6. expansion. ASTONISH Problem-Solving Activity Task 7. Look at the table below and with the help of Google fill in the missing information. Tell the story of the Internet evolution in a class.

Internetworking, new and proprietary commercialization, the Web, new apps nets ALOHA net satellite network in …….. World Wide Web – proposal for the first public demonstration of ARPAnet; ………………… (San Antonio) Metcalfe‘s PhD thesis proposes The world has 50 Web servers!

Ethernet;

……………..;

proprietary architectures: DECnet, SNA, XNA;

Task 8. Check yourself. Solve the quiz below by choosing the appropriate answer.

1) The Internet was 2) created in the USA.

3) Which term describes any fast, high-bandwidth connection?

a) broadband b) dial-up connection c) Wi-Fi connection 4) The power-line Internet provides broad-band access through 5) Which device converts computer data into a form that can be transmitted over phone lines?

6) The standard protocol that allows computer to communicate over the Internet is called 7) The geographical region covered by one or several access points is a) wireless access. b) hostpot. c) wireless network device.

(Taken from the textbook: Infotech English for Computer User, 4th ed., Warm up questions:

1) What are the meanings of the different parts of the Internet address?

2) What are the common ways of connecting to (accessing to) the Internet?

3) What is the role of Internet service providers?

4) What Internet protocols do you know?

Give brief characteristics to them? (functions, features, and etc).

Reading Activity Pre-reading Task 1. Answer the questions below using a dictionary.

1) Study the dictionary entry for the word set and say in what meaning this word is used in each case:

a) Her eyes are set very close together.

What books have been set for A level English?

c) She set a difficult task for herself.

d) The government has set new limits on spending.

e) We need to establish a new set of priorities.

f) The doctor said that he had not seen this particular set of symptoms She‘s got in with a very arty set.

h) His remarks set me thinking.

i) We sat on the beach and watched the sun set.

The film is set in 18th century New England Look at the first sentence in the text and say in what meaning the word set is used. Which case from the sentences above illustrates the same meaning?

Using the dictionary find the synonym to the expression sequencing the information”.

3) Use the dictionary to study the expressions it refers to/it is referred to.

Give a language example to each of them.

Task 2. Read the text about the Internet services and answer the questions to discuss below.

The set of rules used to send and receive packets from one computer to another over the Internet is known as the Internet Protocol (IP). Other protocols are used in connection with IP, the best known of which is the Transmission Control Protocols (TCP). The IP and TCP protocols are so commonly used together that they are referred to as the TCP/IP protocols, used by most Internet applications.

The Internet, a packet-switching network, breaks each message into packets. Each packet contains the addresses of the sending and receiving machines, as well as sequencing information about its location relative to the other packets in the message. Each packet can travel independently across various network interconnections.

Each computer on the Internet has an assigned address, called IP address that uniquely identifies and distinguishes it from all other computers. The IP numbers have four parts, separated by dots. For example, the IP address of one computer might be 135.62.128.91.

Most computers also have names, which are easier for people to remember their IP address. These names are derived from a naming system called the domain name system (DNS). Network Solutions Inc. (NSI) once had the authority to register addresses using. com,.net, or.org domain names. Domains names consist of multiple parts, separated by dots, and are translated from right to left. For software.ibm.com, where com is the name of the zone, ibm – the name of the company (IBM), and software is the name of the particular computer within the company to which the message is being sent.

There are 18 to-level zones (specifications). Here are some of them:

There are three main ways to connect to the Internet. These methods include connecting via a LAN server, connecting via SLIP/PPP, or connecting via online server.

Connect via LAN server. This approach requires the user‘s computer to have specialized software called a communication stack, which provides a set of communication protocols that perform the complete functions of the seven layers of the OSI communications model. This type of connection is expensive, but the cost can be spread over multiple LAN users.

Connect via Serial Line Internet Protocol/Point-to-Point Protocol (SLIP/PPP). This approach requires that users have a modem and specialized software that allows them to dial into a SLIP/PPP server. This type of connection is advantageous, for example, for employees working at home who need the access the Internet or their own company‘s intranet.

Connect via online service. This approach requires a modem, standard communication software, and online information service account with an Internet service provider. The costs include the online service fee, a per-hour connect charge, and, where applicable, e-mail service charge.

(Adapted from: Introduction to Information Technology, 2d ed., 2003.

Questions to discuss:

1) What are the meanings of the different parts of the Internet address?

2) What are the common ways of connecting to (accessing) the Internet?

3) What is the role of Internet service providers?

4) What are the major categories of communication services provided by the Internet?

5) Which communication services are most useful for organizational use?

Private use?

Language Practice Activity Task 3. Use words from the text to rewrite the words in bold.

1) The IP and TCP protocols are mainly used together and called as the TCP/IP protocols.

2) Each packet goes on its own across different network interconnections.

3) Each computer on the Internet has a certain address, called IP address that differs it from all other computers.

Computers‘ names are originated from a naming system called the domain name system.

5) The typical characteristic of domains names is that they consist of several parts, separated by dots, and are read from right to left.

6) Connection via LAN server requires specially designed software, called a communication stack.

7) This type of connection is not cheap, but the cost can be allocated over LAN users.

8) This type of connection is beneficial.

9) The costs include the online service fee, a per-hour connect cost, and, where possible, e-mail service cost.

Task 4. Use the word in brackets in the right form.

1) The Transmission Control Protocols are best known that are used in (connect) with IP.

2) Each computer on the Internet has an (assign) address, called IP.

3) Four parts of the IP numbers are (separate) by dots.

4) Connection via Point-to-Point Protocols is (advantage) because with specialized software one can dial into its server that provides access to the Internet.

5) Connection via online service implies the online service fee and, if (apply), e-mail service charge.

Task 5. Study the following Internet address (URL) and say which part of the address tells us:

http://www.hw.ac.uk/libWWW/irn/irn.html 1) where the company is located.

2) this is a webpage.

3) the type of transmission standard your browser must use to access the 4) the point to the computer where the webpage is stored.

5) where the webpage is stored in the computer.

6) this is a company.

7) this is a Web file.

(Adapted from: the textbook Oxford English for Information technology, Task 6. Make a list of services provided by the Internet. Describe them briefly, emphasizing the purpose, functions, and benefits. Divide the list of services into four major types:

Problem-Solving Activity Task 7. Look at the table describing some possible problems with the Internet connection. Suggest the corrective actions to them.

LAN has no function Bad connectivity Timeout problems Task 8. You need to find the information required for the situations below. What key words would you type into the search box? Compare your answers with others in a group and together decide what would be the best search. Use English language sites only.

1) a street map of Edinburg, Scotland;

2) train times between London and Paris;

3) the exchange rate of your currency against the US dollar;

4) a recipe for chocolate chip or hazelnut brownies;

5) a video clip of the Beatles;

6) New Zealand universities which offer courses in computing Isaac Newton‘s laws in motion.

Warm up questions:

1) What is the World Wide Web and does it differ from the Internet?

2) What is Hypertext Markup Language?

3) How can users access to the Web?

4) What leading browsers of the World Wide Web do you know? What is the advantage of each of them? Which one do you prefer to use, and why?

Reading Activity Pre-reading Task 1. Decide if these statements are true or false.

1) The Internet and the World Wide Web are synonyms.

2) Computers need to use the same protocols (TCP/IP) to communicate to each other.

3) Web TV can provide access to the Net.

4) The Web is based on the standard hypertext language.

5) External, internal and PC card are types of connections.

6) Information can be sent through telephone lines, satellites and power 7) The computer IP number is a way to identify it on the Internet.

Task 2. Read the text about the World Wide Web and answer the questions to discuss below.

Many people believe that the World Wide Web is the same thing as the Internet, but that is not the case. The Internet functions as the transport mechanism, and the World Wide Web (called the Web, WWW, or W3) is an application that uses those transport functions.

The Web is the system with universally accepted standards for storing, retrieving, formatting, and displaying information via a client/server architecture. The Web handles all types of digital information, including text, hypermedia, graphics, and sound. The technology underlying the World Wide Web was created by Timothy Berners-Lee, who in proposed a global network of hypertext documents that would allow physics researchers to work together.

The Web is based on the standard hypertext language called Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), which formats documents and incorporates dynamic hypertext links to other documents stored on the same or different computers. Offering information through the Web requires establishing a home page, which is a text and graphical screen display that usually welcomes the user and explains the organization that has established the page. In most cases, the home page will lead users to other pages. All the pages of a particular company or individual are known as a Web site.

As the amount of information available on the Internet grows, new mechanisms for delivering it to consumers are being developed. Since its inception, the Web has been based on a pull model of information access.

The Web user must actively seek out information by specifying a page to be pulled down to the desktop by typing in a URL, following a hot link, or using the search results from a Web search file. However, passively placing content on a Web site and waiting for people to come, browser is not wellsuited to establishing and fostering strong relations with customers or prospects.

Therefore, the alternative push model of information delivery has emerged. In this model, information is pushed to the user‘s desktop. Push technology now makes it possible to automatically supply information to users by means of a process running on either the user‘s desktop or a network server. With millions of Web sites available for browsing, the only way to guarantee that users receive certain content is to send or push it to them.

Push technology is useful in the workplace, in the consumer market, and as a mechanism for software distribution. In the workplace, push technology can provide timely, prioritized distribution of information over a corporate network. For example, the software can be oriented to an organization‘s different departments to focus attention on important communications. In the consumer market, push technology can enhance traditional Web advertising.

(Adapted from: Introduction to Information Technology, 2d ed., 2003.

Questions to discuss:

1) Describe the WWW and differentiate it from the Internet.

2) Can HTML incorporate tables, applets, text flow around images or it can format just only text documents?

3) How traditionally is a hyperlink highlighted in the text?

4) What are the practical differences between pull and push Web models?

5) What are the benefits of using a push technology?

6) Can you identify and discuss the tools that allow users to view and search the Web?

Language Practice Activity Task 3. Fill in the missing prepositions in these sentences.

Until the appearances …. the World Wide Web, people used the Internet.

File transfer protocol (FTP) was the standard method …. which data could be stored.

The data could be stored on or removed …. a server by using the standard method.

If a document that had been transmitted had references …. other documents then it was not straightforward … access them.

The Web server finds the document … its memory and transmits it along …. extra information.

The information is composed …. two parts.

The extra information provides links …. other documents.

Task 4. Use words and phrases from the text to rewrite the words in bold.

1) Many people truly believe that the World Wide Web and the Internet are synonyms, but they are mistaken.

2) The Web is able to deal with all types of digital information including text, hypermedia, graphics, and sound.

3) The technology generated the World Wide Web was created by Timothy Berners-Lee.

4) At least a browser is capable of communication via HTTP.

5) It was extremely beneficial for users because due to competitive base they tried to provide users with applications of high performance, which were almost free.

6) The idea of the strategy was concluded in making the browser the core of a combined set of applications for corporate users.

7) Netscape has followed the approach of developing a Web-based suite of communications services.

8) The user must search for information by specifying a page to be pulled down to the desktop by typing in a URL.

9) Browser is not implied in its functions to create and strengthen relations with customers.

10) Push technology is considered to be a mechanism for software allocation.

11) In the consumer market, push technology is able to reinforce and enlarge traditional Web advertising.

Task 5. Use the words on the right in the appropriate form that fits the space in the text.

BROWSERS

Users 1._ access the Web through software PRIME applications called browsers. At a minimum a browser is capable of communication via HTTP, 2._ MANAGE HTML, and 3. certain types, such as GIF and DISPLAY JPEG for graphics and Microsoft Windows WAV for sound.

Explorer from Microsoft and Netscape Navigator. The 5. between them has been extremely COMPETE 6. for users, providing them with highly BENEFIT capable applications at almost no cost. Microsoft strategy is to minimize the importance of the browser as a distinct application building browser 7._ FUNCTION directly into its latest 8._ systems. Netscape‘s OPERATE strategy is to make the browser the core of a compelling suite of applications for corporate 9.. Netscape has pursued the approach of USAGE 10. a Web-based suite of communications DEVELOP services, including groupware offering for intranets.

Task 6. Study the following terminology words. Explain the difference between them.

broadband – bandwidth;

telephone connection – dial-up connection;

wireless connection – Wi-Fi connection;

the Internet – the World Wide Web;

circuit switched networks – packet switched networks;

switcher – router.

Note: see more information for definitions at the glossary (Appendix 2), p. 136 – 149.

Task 7. Study the following sentences with the focus on the words in bold and replace them with the appropriate synonyms on the right.

the same or different computers.

either the user‘s desktop or a network server.

communications.

Speaking Activity Task 8. Choose one of the topics from the list below and make up the informative report on one of them. Present your report in the form of the oral presentation in a class.

In your report you have to:

1) state a purpose (traditionally it is a topic of your presentation in relations with aspects surrounding it);

2) identify at the beginning the outline of your presentation (aspects you are going to consider or reveal);

3) support your speech with examples or statistic data and, if applicable, with visuals (diagrams, tables, graphs).

4) summarize all points mentioned before.

Topics:

a) Describe the management challenges caused by the Internet.

b) Define the notion enterprise information portal and discuss how these portals are used by business.

c) Define the notion mobile Internet and discuss mobile Internet applications.

Phrase Bank to Present Informative Report:

1) The purpose/aim/intention of this report is to outline/present/discuss the problem/issue/topic ……..

2) As requested, it is a report concerning/regarding the matter/subject of 3) The report contains the (relevant) information/details of/concerning …..which are requested/asked for …… The report outlines recent investments in …../company‘s achievements……/concerning ……… On the whole, I would be fair to conclude that …….

I am pleased to announce/inform you that …….

Warm up questions:

1) What is intranet and extranet? Identify the differences between them.

2) Where each of them is used, for what purposes?

3) What security techniques for intranets and extranets do you know?

Reading Activity Pre-reading Task 1. Answer the questions below using a dictionary.

1) Study the dictionary entries for the words personnel/ personal. Explain what the difference between them is.

2) What is the difference between words authority/authorization?

Give the opposite to internal network”.

Give the opposite to a valid user”.

5) Form the adjective from the word security. In the expression security techniques is the word security used as an adjective?

Task 2. Read the information about intranet and extranet and answer the questions to discuss below.

An intranet is a private network that uses Internet software and TCP/IP protocols. In essence, an intranet is a private Internet, or group of private segments of the public Internet networks, reserved for use by people who have been given the authority to use the network. Companies increasingly are using intranets – powered by internal Web servers – to give their employees easy access to corporate information. Intranets also are an effective medium for application delivery. The most common applications on corporate intranets are for personnel policies and procedures; documents sharing; corporate telephone directories; human resources forms; training programs; search engines, customer database and etc.

With this number and variety of applications, intranet security is critically important. Companies can prevent unwanted intrusion into the intranets in several ways. Public key security is used to broker authorization to enter into a private intranet. It has two parts: encryption and certificate authorities. Encryption scrambles outgoing data, while digital certificates are likely electronic identification cards, letting a business know that the person trying to access the intranet is a valid user. Another important way for companies to protect their intranets is with the use of firewalls. A firewall is a device located between a firm‘s internal network (intranets) and external network. The firewall regulates access into and out of a company‘s network.

Firewalls permit certain external services, such as Internet e-mail, to pass.

For higher security, companies can implement assured pipelines.

Whereas a firewall examines only the header information of a packet, an assured pipeline examines the entry request for data and then determines whether the request is valid.

An extranet is a type of interorganizational information system.

Depending on the business partners involved and the purpose, there are three major types of extranets. Here they are:

1. A company and its dealers;

2. An industry‘s extranet;

3. Joint ventures and other business partnerships.

The term extranet comes from extended intranet. Extranets enable people who are located outside a company to work together with the company‘s internally located employees. The main goal of extranet is to select supplies, customers, and other business partners, who access it through the Internet. However, extranets use virtual private network (VPN) technology to make communication over the Internet more secure. Using an extranet, external business partners and telecommuting employees can enter the corporate intranet via the Internet to access data, place orders, check status, and send e-mails. The Internet-based extranet is far less costly than proprietary network.

(Adapted from: Introduction to Information Technology, 2d ed., 2003. P. 226) Questions to discuss:

1) Can you describe the most common applications that are run on corporate intranets?

2) What security techniques do you know that are used with intranets?

Can you describe them?

3) Is extranet open to the general public?

4) Can you explain the infrastructure of an extranet?

5) Can you describe the basic features of extranet each type?

Language Practice Activity Task 3. Fill in the gaps in the sentences with the appropriate words in brackets to get a true sentence.

1) An intranet is a _ (public/private) Internet for use by people who have been given the authority to use the network.

2) Companies increasingly are using intranets in order to give their employees easy access to (corporate/Internet available) information.

3) Intranet security is (extremely/quite) important.

4) Companies can _ (prevent/predict) unwanted intrusion into the intranets.

5) Extranets use (virtual private/virtual public) network technology to make communication over the Internet more secure.

6) The Internet-based extranet is _ (much cheaper/more expensive) than proprietary network.

Task 4. Continue the following sentences.

An intranet is a private network that uses ………… 2) Companies increasingly are using intranets in order to give their employees …….

The most common applications on corporate intranets are for ……… The important way for companies to protect their intranets is ……….

Extranets enable people who are located outside a company to ……… The main goal of extranet is ……….

Task 5. Join these ideas in one sentence. The sequence can be changed.

1) Nowadays companies are increasingly using intranets; companies have to prevent unwanted intrusion into the intranets.

2) There are three major types of extranets; what type of extranet to choose depends on the business partners involved and the purpose.

3) Extranets use virtual private network technology; virtual private network technology is used to make communication over the Internet more secure.

4) Many people prefer to use public network to access data; the Internetbased extranet is far less costly than proprietary network.

Task 6. Use the words on the right in the appropriate form that fits the space in the text.

FIREWALLS

Firewalls are difficult to understand and configure, even for 1. _ computer users. If you've been EXPRERIENCE putting off 2. _ a firewall, or if you are not sure INSTALL how to determine whether your firewall is 3. PROTECT you fully. According to Merriam-Webster, the original meaning of fire wall was "a wall 4. _ to prevent CONSTRUCT the spread of fire." Computer firewalls are constructed to prevent 5. intrusions from the Internet into WANT your PC. But 6. fire, Net threats don't leap onto LIKE your machine through mere proximity. They arise when someone exploits a 7. of your PC's COMBINE unique IP address and one or more of the thousands of TCP and UDP ports that serve as the door to your system.

Problem-Solving Activity Task 7. The table below describes the benefits of extranets. Fill in the right column with recommendations how these benefits can be achieved.

Fewer help-desk employees needed Improved quality Lower communications and travel costs Lower administrative and other overhead costs Faster processes and information flow Reductions in paperwork and delivery of accurate information in a timely manner Improved order entry and customer service Better communication Overall improvement in business effectiveness Academic Skills Development:

Graphs and Diagrams in Technical Documentation Warm up questions:

1) What is the main purpose of visuals in documentation/books/presentations?

2) What kinds of visuals do you know?

3) What do you keep in mind when choose visuals?

4) If you are asked to analyze the Internet (graph/diagram) would be the best for it?

Reading Activity Task 1. Read the text about different types of graphs and diagrams. Then answer the questions to discuss below.

Graphics are an essential part of any technical document or presentation. Before computers, graphics were considered a luxury, to be used only in the most important documents. Today, with computers, you can create charts, graphs, diagrams, and even illustrations with much less effort.

Why are graphics so important? Today, we live in an increasingly visual culture. Your readers will often pay more attention to visuals in your document than to the written text. Have you ever thought about the rules and principles that help us to use graphics properly as a supporting background for our research which allows the readers to understand complex concepts and trends better?

Traditionally, the following kinds of graphics are used:

Diagrams are visual ways of presenting data concisely. They are often called figures. In an academic article they are usually labeled Fig.1 (Figure), Fig.2, etc. A pie chart is a circle divided into segments from the middle (like slices of a cake) to show how the total is divided up. A key or legend shows what each segment represents.

A bar chart is a diagram in which different amounts are represented by thin vertical or horizontal bars which have the same width but vary in height or length. A table is a grid with column and rows of numbers. A flowchart is a diagram which indicates the stages of a process. An organization chart or organigram can illustrate the hierarchy of decision making into an organization. A line graph is perhaps the most familiar way to display data. It is best used to show measurements over time. Some of the more common applications include the following:

Showing trends – line graphs are especially good at showing how quantities rise and fall over time.

Showing relationships between variables – line graphs are also helpful when charting the interaction of two different variables.

There is another graph called a Gantt chart. Gantt charts are very popular in technical documents, especially proposals and progress reports.

This type of graphics is used to illustrate a project schedule, showing when the phases of the project should begin and end. Another benefit to a Gantt chart is that it gives readers an overall sense of how the project will proceed from beginning to end.

Various kinds of graphics can be used to display information or data.

Each type of graphic allows you to tell a different story with your data. To decide which graphic is best for the data you want to display, first decide what story you want to tell.

In order to do it effectively we need to follow four major guidelines:

Guideline One: a graphic should tell a simple story.

Guideline Two: a graphic should reinforce the written text, not replace it.

Guideline Three: a graphic should be ethical.

Guideline Four: a graphic should be labeled and place properly.

Questions to discuss:

1) How visuals are labeled (diagrams/tables/graphs) in academic articles?

2) What factors influence the choice of visuals? When a pie chart is better to use than a bar chart? What does it depend on?

3) What visual is better to present data or facts for analysis and comparison?

How do you understand the third guideline that tells – a graph should be ethical?

Choose any type of visuals and describe its functions, features, and story it is supposed to tell.

Case Study Activity Pre-reading Task 2. Read the information about basic concepts of professional ethics and answer the questions below.

What do ethics mean to you?

What is the difference between ethics and etiquette?

What do professional ethics mean?

4) What is the ethical dilemma?

5) What makes people behave or act unethically, even if they understand clearly that they are doing not the right thing?

The Introduction to Professional Ethics

Ethics are system of moral social or cultural values that govern the conduct of an individual or community. For many people, acting ethically simply means doing the right thing, a phrase that actually sums up ethics quite well. But the hard part is to figure out what are these right things.

All your actions have ethical dimensions. In some work situations the ethical choice is apparent. Occasionally though you will be presented by ethical dilemma that needs more consideration. An ethical dilemma offers a choice among two or more unsatisfactory courses of action.

In technical workplaces resolving ethical dilemmas will be part of your job. This is particularly stressful because of the money, time and reputation involved in projects. Thus ethical dilemmas can force you into the state where all the solutions might seem unsatisfactory. In fact people rarely set up to do something unethical. Usually it happens when they find themselves in a situation where making decisions means taking risks. In such situations they may act unethically because of the fear of failure, pressure from others, or just a series of bad decisions.

Task 3. Read the case about not ethical use of graphics and answer the questions to discuss below.

Things weren‘t going well at Kate Bunson‘s company. Sales were down, and expenses were up. Everyone knew that the downturn in sales was due to the current recession, but the company‘s investors didn‘t seem to have much patience with those sorts of explanations. They wanted to see rising profits. If they didn‘t see rising profits, they might pull their money out of the company.

It was time for the company to put together the annual report before the stockholders‘ meeting in Chicago. Kate‘s responsibility was to write the part of the report that discussed the product sales and expenses. She needed to find a way to show that the current downturn in sales was simply a result of the overall downturn in the economy. She needed to illustrate that sales would return as soon as the current recession was over.

But her supervisor had other ideas. Listen, Kate, she said, it is simple. Investors rarely look closely at these annual reports. They scan the graphics, looking for rising lines. So, all you need to do is design your graphs so that they describe losses, not gains. On a sheet of paper, Kate‘s boss sketched a quick idea of the kind of graphs she had in mind.

The Boss’s Drawings Sales (losses) In other words, Kate‘s boss was suggesting that her graphs use rising lines to reflect increased losses and increased expenses. It was, at best, a visual trick to give the investors the impression that sales were going up. At worst, it was dishonest, because the product sales graph would imply the opposite of the truth, even though it technically was telling the truth. Kate knew there must be better way to express the sales data ethically without also giving the impression that the company was dramatically losing money.

Questions to discuss:

1) How did Kate have to organize a graph?

What were the idea and the main trick of Kate‘s boss? Was it ethical?

Prove your answer.

3) What are some ways she could use graphs ethically without also spooking the company‘s investors?

(Adapted from: Technical Communication Today, 2d ed.,2007. P. 312) Problem-Solving Activity Task 4. Work in groups. Study the following situations.

What types of unethical behaviour do they represent?

Suggest your solutions for the problems described.

A. You are working for the company producing computers. One day you were sent to the plant of your contractor who manufactures parts for your company‘s computers. This partner is very important for your company because it produces relatively cheap but high-quality parts. Walking through the plant‘s workshop you notice that there is no grounding at some workplaces that might cause severe electric shock. You try to ask you contractor why it is so but he advises you not to pay attention and changes the topic. What you should do?

B. You were working as a senior design engineer for a motor company. Several months ago you resigned and took another job in competitor‘s company. Before leaving you created a new car engine that can be a real breakthrough in car building. Your new company hinges that you should give them information about this engine or you will be fired.

What should you do?

C. You were working for a company producing websites. After some years of working you resigned and started your own business. To make your websites you decided to use the same engine and CMS that your excompany uses, that was developed in-side this company and the access to which was granted to you as an employee of that company. What a company should do to prevent such a situation? Are you breaking the law? What should you do as an ethical person?

D. You are the civil engineer. Last week the developer of a building project called you and said he is not satisfied with your project. You were very surprised because you neither know the developer nor the project. After some conversation it became evident that someone cut your stamp, put it on their own project and gave it to the developer. What should you do?

E. You are working as a maintenance technician in a small charter air company. One day you get a report from employee that the parts that he needs to install on aircraft engine are not authorized and probably forged.

You go with this report to senior technician but he orders you to shred this document and put the parts on the engine because the air company has a single plain and if it is not in operation the company will have a lot of losses. What should you do?

Language Practice Activity To increase: to go up, to reach a peak, to move upwards, to accelerate, to rise, to grow, to climb up;

To decrease: to drop, to fall, to decline, to reach a low point, to plunge into, to bottom out, to dip to, to reduce;

To describe stability: to flatten out, to leave out, to remain stable, to maintain the same level, to stay constant, no change;

To describe improvements: to recover, to improve;

To describe a degree of implementation or changes: slightly, a little, gently, dramatically, suddenly, gradually, significantly, moderately, considerably, rapidly, steadily, slowly, sharply, hugely, enormously;

To give an attribute of changes: significant, marked, slight, small, minimal.

Task 5. Read the description of the chart and draw the missing section of the line graph.

The line graph shows figures for unemployment in the UK workforce between May 2003 and July 2006. It is clear from the chart that the rate of unemployment fluctuated a great deal during this time. At the beginning of this period, unemployment stood at 5.1 %. A few months later the figure had risen slightly to 5.2 %. Unemployment then remained stable until September 2003. From this point on there was a steady downward trend and by January 2004 the rate fallen to 4.9 %. It stayed at this level until May the same year, but from May to July there was another small drop of 0,1 %.

There were no further changes in the level of unemployment until March the following year. From march to may 2005, there was a small increase of 0,1 %, but this did not last long and the figure fallen back to 4.8 % by July. From September 2005 onwards, however, there was a marked upward trend in the rate of unemployment in the UK. From September 2005 to November the same year, the figure shot up from 4.8 to 5.2 %. The rate remained stable for a few months, but then rose sharply again, and had reached a peak of 5.7 % by July 2006.

Task 6. Read the report again (task 5) and find phrases which mean… went up and down frequently did not change (2 phrases) went up a little went up very quickly (2 phrases) arrived at its highest point went up noticeably over a period went down (2 phrases) went down gradually over a period Task 7. Study the table below and fill in the missing information.

I want to show a trend.

I want to compare two or more quantities.

I need to present data or facts for analysis and comparison.

I need to show how the whole is divided into parts.

I need to show how things, people, or steps are linked together.

I need to show how a project will meet its goals over time.

(Adapted from: Technical Communication Today, 2d ed., 2007. P. 289) Task 8. Mark the following words noun (N) or adjective (Adj.), then label the 2 graphs with the following nouns and adjectives. Mark the first graph with adjectives, the second graph with nouns.

Change the adjectives into adverbs. Which of the nouns can be used as or changed into verbs?

Task 9. Look at the following list of verbs. Which verbs can be used to describe a graph, chart or table? Cross out the verbs that are NOT appropriate.

(Teaching materials designed by TUM English instructor Karl Huges. 2010) Task 10. Look at the pie chart below and guess what story this pie chart tells. Use the following speech models:

This chart indicates the percentage of…..

The pie chart shows figures for…….

The users are divided into……….

There are several features that we can take note of according to…..

To sum up, the overall picture tells us that…….

Project Activity Task 11. Solve the following problems.

1) Find a set of data. Then, use different kinds of charts and graphs to illustrate trends in the data. For example, you might use a bar chart, line graph, and pie chart to illustrate the same data set.

How does each type of graphic allow you to tell a different story with What are the strengths and limitations of each kind of graphic?

Which kind of chart or graph would probably be most effective for illustrating your data set?

2) On the Internet, find some written text that could be turned into graph, table, or chart. Then, create a visual that would complement this text.

In a memo to your teacher, show how the text and visual would complement each other by referring readers back and forth between text and visual.

Module 2. Telecommunications and Networks Unit 1.

The Telecommunications System. telecommunications system. Learn Unit 2.

Unit 3.

Network Communications Learn the vocabulary enabling to Unit 4.

Networks Processing Strategies. of distributed processing. Learn the Unit 5.

Telecommunications Applications. applications that can attain Warm up questions:

1) What is telecommunications?

computing technologies in most companies is just as important as the computer itself?

3) Is telecommunicating always beneficial for an organization? For an employee?

When might telecommunicating not be beneficial for an organization or an employee?

4) Do you know what P2P computing means? How is it related with the issue considered in this unit?

Reading Activity Pre-reading Task 1. Answer the questions below.

1) Which words from the list below have a negative prefix and which not?

unobtrusive, unauthorized, inexpensive, insulted, unintended, inflexible, invented, interference.

2) Do the expressions relatively inexpensive/fairly inexpensive mean the 3) Look up the dictionary and explain the difference between the phrases is made of/is made from.

4) Replace the phrase in bold: It is relatively slow for transmitting data, is subject to interference from other electrical sources, and can be easily tapped for gaining unauthorized access to data by unintended receivers.

5) What word from brackets can best suit to replace the word in bold:

Radio waves tend to propagate easily through normal office walls (penetrate, allocate, distribute, break through).

How do you understand the expression to bury wire?

Task 2. Read the text about communications media and channels and answer the questions to discuss below.

For data to be communicated from one location to another, some forms of pathway must be used. These pathways are called communications channels. The communications channels, in two types of media, can be classified as:

Let‘s see each media type in detail.

Twisted-pair wire is made of cooper. It is the most prevalent form of communication wiring; it is used for almost all business telephone wiring.

Twisted-pair wire consists of strands of cooper wire twisted in pairs. It is relatively inexpensive to purchase, widely available, and easy to work with, and it can be made relatively unobtrusive by running it inside walls, floors, and ceiling. However, twisted-pair has some significant disadvantages. It is relatively slow for transmitting data, is subject to interference from other electrical sources, and can be easily tapped for gaining unauthorized access to data by unintended receivers.

Coaxial cable consists of insulated cooper wire. It is much less susceptible to electrical interference than twisted-pair wire and can carry much more data. For these reasons, it is commonly used to carry high-speed data traffic as well as television signals (thus the term cable TV). However, coaxial cable is more expensive and more difficult to work with than twisted-pair wire. It is also somewhat inflexible.

Because of it inflexibility, it can increase the cost of recabling when equipment must be moved.

Fiber-optic cable is made of glass. This technology, combined with the invention of the semiconductor laser, provides the means to transmit information through clear glass fibers in the form of light waves, instead of electrical current. Fiber-optic cables consist of thousands of very thin filaments of glass fibers that conduct light pulses generated by lasers at very-high-speed transmission frequencies. The fiber-optic cable is surrounded by cladding, a coating that prevents the light from leaking out of the fiber.

Microwave systems are widely used for high-volume, long-distance, point-to-point communication. Microwave towers usually cannot be spaced more than 30 miles apart because the earth‘s curvature would interrupt the line of sight from tower to tower. To minimize line-of-sight problems, microwave antennas are usually placed on the top of buildings, towers, and mountain peaks. Long-distance telephone carries use microwave systems because they generally provide about ten times the data-carrying capacity of wire without the significant efforts necessary to string or bury wire.

Compared to 30 miles of wire, microwave communications can be set up much more quickly (within a day) at much less cost. Microwave transmissions are susceptible to environmental interference during severe weather such as heavy rain or snowstorms. Although still widely used, longdistance microwave data communications systems are being replaced by satellite communications systems.

Satellite, as with microwave transmission, must receive and transmit via line of sight. However, the enormous footprint (the amount of the earth‘s surface in the line of sight for a specific satellite) of a satellite‘s coverage area from high altitudes overcomes the limitations of microwave data relay stations. A network of just three evenly spaced communications satellites in stationary geosynchronous orbit 22,300 miles above the equator is sufficient to provide global coverage. Currently, there are three types of orbits in which satellites are placed. They are: geostationary earth orbit, medium earth orbit, low earth orbit.

Global positioning system. A global positioning system (GPS) is a wireless system that uses satellites to enable users to determine their position anywhere on the earth. GPS equipment is used for navigation by commercial airlines and ships.

GPS is supported by 24 satellites that are shared worldwide. Each satellite orbit the earth once in 12 hours, on a precise path at an altitude of 10, miles. At any point in time, the exact position of each satellite is known, because the satellite broadcasts its position and a time signal from its onboard atomic clock, accurate to onebillionth of a second. GPS software can convert the latitude and longitude computed to an electronic map.

The first dramatic use of GPS came during the Persian Gulf War, when troops relied on the technology to find their way in the Iraqi desert.

Radio electromagnetic data communications do not have to depend on microwave or satellite links, especially for the short ranges such as within an office setting. Radio is being used increasingly to connect computers and peripheral equipment or computers and local area networks. For data communications, the greatest advantage of radio is that no metallic wires are needed. Radio waves tend to propagate easily through normal office walls.

The devices are fairly inexpensive and easy to install. Radio also allows for high data transmission speed.

However, radio media can create electrical interference problems – with other office electrical equipment, and from this equipment to the radio communications devices.

Cellular radio technology for data communication works like this:

The federal Communications Commission has defined geographic cellular service areas; each area is subdivided into hexagonal cells that fir together like a honeycomb to form the backbone that area‘s cellular radio system. A radio transceiver and a computerized cell-site controller that handle all cellsite functions are located at the center of each cell. All the sell-sites are connected to a mobile telephone switching office that provides the connections from the cellular system to a wired telephone networks.

Infrared light is red light not commonly visible to human eyes. It can be modulated or pulsed for conveying the information. The most common application of infrared light is in television remote control units. With computers, infrared transmitters and receivers are being used for shortdistance connections between computers and peripheral equipment, or between computers and local networks.

(Adapted from: Introduction to Information Technology, 2d ed., 2003.

Questions to discuss:

1) What cables are made of cooper?

2) What are the implications of having fiber-optic cable going to everyone‘s home?

3) What are the common media for telecommunications?

4) Why should microwave towers be located not far than 30 miles apart?

5) What broadcast media is less sensitive to hard environmental conditions?

6) How quickly does satellite go around the earth?

7) What is the common implementation of infrared light?

Language Practice Activity Task 3. Match the beginnings of the sentences with their endings.

In order to transmit the data from one computer to another ….

2) Twisted-pair wire is the most prevalent form of communication wiring One of the significant disadvantages of twisted-pair is that it…..

4) Coaxial cable in comparison with twisted-pair is much less susceptible to electrical interference and ….

This type of cable is surrounded by cladding, a coating that ….

6) Experts conclude that the cost of fiber and difficulties in installing fiber-optic cable …..

7) Fiber-optic cable is most often used as the backbone medium of a network, so it …..

a) prevents the light from leaking out of the fiber.

b) can be interfered from other electrical sources.

c) some forms of pathway must be used.

d) slows its growth.

e) can carry much more data.

f) it is used for almost all business telephone wiring.

can‘t be used to connect the trunk line to individual devices on the network.

Task 4. Fill in the table below with respective advantages and disadvantages of common cable media for telecommunications.

Twisted-pair Coaxial cable Fiber-optic cable Task 5. Complete the missing forms in the table. Use a dictionary if necessary. Do not fill in the shaded boxes.

communication flexibility combination Task 6. Fill in the table below with respective advantages and disadvantages of broadcast media for telecommunications.

Microwave Satellite Radio Cellular radio Infrared Task 7. Look at the list of major components of a telecommunications system and characterize each of them (function, role, and etc.).

1) Hardware 2) Communication media 3) Communication networks 4) Communication software 5) Data communication providers 6) Communication protocols 7) Communication application Note: see more information for definitions at the glossary (Appendix 3), p. 150 – 162.

Task 8. Correct the spelling and other vocabulary mistakes in these sentences.

1) These systems are able to transmit of the information via satellites.

2) These cables are used to carry upper-speed traffic datas.

3) Twisted-pair cables are cheaper than easy to work with then coaxial 4) The main drawback of the system is its unflexibility.

Task 9. Use the words on the right in the appropriate form that fits the space in the text.

FIBER-OPTIC CABLES

Fiber optics are now installed on a scale large enough to be 1._ practical. Until recently, the ECONOMY cost of fiber and difficulties in 2._ fiber-optic INSTALL cable slowed its 3.. Although joining the ends GROW of cooper wires is fairly simple and reliable, 4._ JOIN fiber-optic cables with little or no loss of signal can be very difficult – especially in cable tunnels, closets, and ceilings. Fiber-optic cable is most often used as the backbone medium of a network, but not for connecting 5._ devices to the backbone. That is, fiber-optic ISOLATE cable is used as the high-speed trunk line for a network, while twisted-pair wire and coaxial cable still are 6. to connect the trunk line to individual devices USE on the network.

Writing Activity Task 10. Link each set of sentences to make one sentence. You may omit, change or add words as required.

Then form your sentences into two paragraphs to make a description of how GPS works and its uses.

1) The GPS was developed by the US military.

It was designed to pinpoint location.

The location could be anywhere in the world.

2) It consists of 24 earth-orbiting satellites.

The satellites are 17, 000kms. above the earth.

3) Each satellite broadcasts a coded radio signal.

The signal indicates the time and the satellite‘s exact position.

4) The satellites have atomic clocks.

The clocks are accurate to one second every 70,000 years.

5) A GPS receiver contains a microprocessor.

The microprocessor compares signals.

The signals are from at least three satellites.

The microprocessor calculates the latitude, longitude and altitude of the receiver.

6) GPS has many uses apart from military uses.

GPS can be used for orienting hikers.

GPS can be used for aiding the navigations of ships.

GPS can be used for locating stolen cars.

(Taken from: the textbook Oxford English for Information technology, Problem-Solving Activity Task 11. Solve the following problems.

1) Develop a plan describing how you would build a telecommunications infrastructure in China. Discuss the communications media, devices, and services you would use. Start with analysis of what China has now. Use the Google information.

2) Access the Web site of the companies entering the satellite market and obtain the latest information regarding the status of their satellite constellations. Prepare a report (one page) for class detailing the current status of these constellations.

(Adapted from: Introduction to Information Technology, 2d ed., Warm up questions:

1) What are some components of a computer network?

2) Can you classify the major types of networks?

3) How does a computer network help a business?

4) Look at the list of some networks components and describe the functions of a file server, a bridge, a router, a backbone, a LAN, a gateway, a modem.

Reading Activity Pre-reading Task 1. Read and decide if the statements are true or false.

1) LANs link computers and other devices that are placed far apart.

2) The word protocol refers to the shape of the network.

3) Routers are used to link two computers.

Access points don‘t need to be connected to a wired LAN.

5) Wireless adapters are optional when you are using a WLAN.

6) Hotspots can only be found inside a building.

Task 2. Choose the best definition for each word.

3) LAN a) a local network b) a network device c) a wireless network Task 3. Read the text about the types of computer networks and answer the questions to discuss below.

Because people need to communicate over long as well as short distances, the geographic size of data communications networks is important. There are two general network sizes: local area networks and wide area networks. A metropolitan area network falls between the two in size.

A local area network (LAN) connects two or more communicating devices within 2,000 feet (usually within the same building), so that every user device on the network has the potential to communicate with every other device. A LAN allows a large number of users to share corporate resources (such as storage devices, printers, programs, and data files) and integrates a wide range of functions into a single system. In an office, a LAN can give users fast and efficient access to a common bank of information while also allowing the office to pool resources such as printers and fax machines. A well-constructed LAN also can eliminate the need to circulate paper documents by distributing electronic memos and other material to each worker‘s terminal.

LANs come in an assortment of topologies. The topology of a network is the physical layout and connectivity of a network. Specific protocols are often used on specific topologies, but the two concepts are different.

Topology refers to the ways of channels connect the nodes, whereas protocol refers to the rules by which the data communications take place over the channels. There are five basic network topologies: star, bus, ring, hierarchical, and hybrid.

Each topology has strengths and weaknesses. When system developers choose a topology, they should consider such performance issues as delay, speed, reliability, and the network‘s ability to continue through, or recover after, failure in any device or connection to the network.

LAN technology. The LAN file server is a repository of various software and data files for the network. The server determines who gets access to what and in what sequence. Servers can be powerful microcomputers with large, fast-access hard drives, or they may be workstations, minicomputers, or mainframes. The server typically houses the LAN‘s network operating system, which manages the server and routes and manages communications on the network.

The network gateway connects the LAN to public networks or other corporate networks so that the LAN can exchange information with networks external to it. A gateway is a communications processor that can connect dissimilar networks by translating from one set of protocols to another. A bridge connects two networks of the same type. A router routes messages through several connected LANs or to a wide area network.

(Adapted from: Introduction to Information Technology, 2d ed., 2003.

Questions to discuss:

1) What are the main business reasons for using LANs?

How do you understand the phrase LAN allows a large number of users to share corporate resources and to pool resources?

3) By what criteria is the performance of the topology evaluated?

4) Find in the text the language equivalent to the expression to minimize the problem.

The LAN file server is characterized as a repository of various software and data files for the network. What does it mean?

Paraphrase the expression keeping its meaning the server houses the LAN‘s operating systems.

Language Practice Activity (to Reading Activity 1) Task 3. Read the description of different topologies on communication networks and match them with topologies described in the text.

a) all the devices are connected to a central station.

b) in this type of network there is a cable to which all the computers and peripherals are connected.

c) two or more star networks connected together; the central computers are connected to a main bus.

d) all devices (computers, printers, etc.) are connected to one another forming a continuous loop.

Task 4. Look at the figures below and say what network topologies are described on them.

Task 5. Use the words on the right in the appropriate form that fits the space in the text.

WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY

In baseband LANs, the entire capacity of the cable is used to transmit a single 1._ coded DIGITAL signal. In broadband LANs, the capacity of the cable is 2._ into separate frequencies to permit it to DIVIDE carry several signals at the same time.

Wireless local area networks (WLANs) is a technology that provides LAN 3. over short CONNECT distances, typically 4. to less than 150 LIMIT meters, and usually within one building.

Bluetooth technology is a 5. technology that WIRE allows digital devices such as computers, printers, keyboards, cell phones to 6._ with each COMMUNICATE other via low-power radio frequencies. Bluetooth can also form a home network by 7._ devices like LINK lights, televisions, and the garage door.

Reading Activity Pre-reading Task 6. Answer the questions below using a dictionary.

1) Paraphrase the following: to send and receive data beyond the confines of the local area network”.

2) What does the following sentence mean:

WANs are long-haul?

3) What does a phrase in bold mean: They are private, data-only networks that are managed by outside third parties.

4) Study the dictionary entry for the verb dedicate. How do you understand the expression dedicated lines”?

Task 7. Read the text and answer the questions to discuss below.

Although most businesses have to transmit data throughout a LAN, most also have to send and receive data beyond the confines of the local area network. This is accomplished by connecting to one or more wide area networks. Wide area networks (WANs) are long-haul, broadband (analog) networks covering wide geographic areas. WANs include regional networks such as telephone companies or international networks such as global communications services providers. They usually have very large capacity circuits, with many communications processors that make it possible to use their circuits efficiently. WANs may combine switched and dedicated lines, microwave, and satellite communications. The main transmission paths within a WAN are high-speed lines called backbones. Wireless WANs use mobile telephone networks. The largest WAN in existence is the Internet.

WANs can use any of the five basic types of network topologies, but they most generally use the star topology in order to more tightly control the network. Let‘s consider two types of WANs.

Value-added networks (VANs) are types of WANs. They are private, data-only networks that are managed by outside third parties and used by multiple organizations to provide economies in the cost of service and in network management. VANs can add message storage, tracking, and relay services as well as teleconferencing services, thus enabling their users to more closely tailor communications capabilities to specific business needs.

Virtual private networks (VPN) are a WAN operated by a common carrier. VPNs allow an organization to leverage the robust, shared communications infrastructure of the Internet to hook up with remote users, branch offices, and business partners worldwide, without paying the distance-sensitive fees that carriers charge for conventional network links.

VPNs provide a gateway between a corporate LAN and the Internet, and they allow access to a corporate network‘s e-mail, shared files, or intranet, via an Internet connection. A VPN server handles the security, such as authentication, permitting access from the Internet to an intranet. The data travels over the Internet in encrypted form. VPNs are particularly effective for extranets, because they allow the use of the Internet among business partners instead of using a more expensive VAN. VPNs are also especially important for international business, where long-distance calls or VANs remain very expensive.

(Adapted from: Introduction to Information Technology, 2d ed., 2003.

Questions to discuss:

1) What is the difference between LANs and WANs?

2) What channels do WANs use for providing communication?

3) What are some common WAN options?

4) What are the switched and dedicated lines that WANs can combine for providing communications?

5) Why star topology is generally used in WANs connections?

Language Practice Activity (to Reading Activities 1 - 2) Task 8. Correct the spelling and other vocabulary and grammar mistakes in these sentences.

1) Wide area networks are long-haul, broadband networks covering wide geography area.

2) Communications processors make possible to use large capacity circuits effectively.

3) The main transmition paths within a WAN are high-speed lines called backbones.

4) The largest WAN existing is the Internet.

5) WANs can use any of the five basic types of network topologys.

6) They are private, only-data networks that are managed by outsider third parties and used by multiple organizations.

7) Value-added networks enable their users to more closely tailor communications capabilitys to specifics business needs.

Task 9. Choose from the list the appropriate linking word(s) to connect these ideas.

Because, although, by means of, due to, so that, whereas, but, even though, while.

1) LAN connects two or more communicating devices, _ every device on the network has the potential to communicate with every other device.

2) LAN provides to users fast and efficient access to a common bank of information _ allowing the office to pool resources such as printers and fax machines.

3) Specific protocols are often used on specific topologies, _ the two concepts are different.

4) Virtual private networks are very effective for extranets, _ they provide the access to the Internet to business partners instead of using a more expensive VAN.

Task 10. Use the words on the right in the appropriate form that fits the space in the text.

COMPUTER NETWORKS

A computer network consists of communications media, devices, and software 1._ to connect NEED two or more computer systems and/or devices.

Computer networks are essential to modern organizations for many reasons. First, 2._ NETWORK computer systems enable organizations to be more flexible and 3. to meet rapidly changing ADAPT business conditions. Second, networks enable companies to share hardware, computer 4., APPLY and databases across the organization. Third, networks make it possible for 5. dispersed GEOGRAPHY employees and workgroups to share documents, ideas, opinions, and creative insights, 6. ENCOURAGE teamwork, innovation, and more efficient and effective 7.. Finally, the network is INTERACT 8. the link between businesses and between INCREASE businesses and their customers.

Speaking Activity Task 11. A network administrator has set up a new network in a school.

Read his report and decide which topology has he chosen? Prove your answer.

We have decided to install computers in all the departments but we haven‘t spent a lot of money on them. Actually, only the one in the staff room is really powerful (and expensive!). They all have common access to the Net and share a laser printer. The teachers in this school have built up a general file of resources kept in the main computer to which all the others in the network have access.

Problem-Solving Activity Task 12. Work in two groups, A and B. Group A, list all the advantages of a network. Group B, list all the disadvantages. Then together consider how the disadvantages can be minimized.

(Taken from: the textbook Oxford English for Information technology, 12.1 Try to link some of the advantages and disadvantages as in the examples below (below the table).

Advantages of a network Disadvantages of a network Allow data to be shared. Permit viruses to spread quickly.

Users can share software on the Server failure means no one can Sample 1: Although networks allow data to be shared, they permit viruses spread quickly.

Sample 2: Users can share software on the server; however server failure means that no one can work.

(Taken from: the textbook Oxford English for Information technology, Warm up questions:

1) What network communications software do 2) What functions does it serve?

Reading Activity Pre-reading Task 1. Answer the questions below, if necessary use a dictionary.

1) Match the definitions with various parts of network communication software.

1. Network Operating Systems a. performs functions that 2) What does the phrase in bold mean? Frame relay are less error-prone.

What does to boost network performance” mean? Can you give the synonymic expression to it?

4) What preposition is the right one? Frame relay can communicate with/at transmission speed of 1.544 Mbps?

5) What verbs from the list below have the prefix re meaning to do something again and which do not?

recable, reassemble, reinforce, redesign, require, retransmit.

Task 2. Read the information about network software and answer the questions to discuss below.

Communications software provides many functions in a network.

These functions include error checking, message formatting, communications logs, data security and privacy, and translation capabilities.

These functions are performed by various parts of network communications software, which includes network operating systems, network management software, and protocols.

Types of Data Transmission. For advanced computing applications, much greater bandwidth may be needed on networks. Various types of data transmission technologies address this need. These technologies include packet-switching, frame relay, fiber distributed data interface, asynchronous transfer mode, switching hubs.

Packet-switching is used in value-added networks. Packet-switching breaks up blocks of text into small, fixed bundles of data called packets. The VAN continuously uses various communications channels to send the packets. Each packet travels independently through the network. Packets of data originating at the one source can be routed through different paths in the network, and then may be reassembled into the original message when they reach their destination.

Packet-switching is causing a telecommunications revolution.

Telecommunications providers are transforming their infrastructure from the existing, public, circuit-switched networks designed to carry analog voice traffic to packet-switched networks designed and optimized for data that carry voice just another data type.

Frame relay is a faster and less expensive version of packet switching.

Frame relay is shared network service that packages data into frames that are similar to packets. Frame relay, however, does not perform error correction, because modern digital lines are less error-prone than older lines, and networks are more effective at error checking. Frame relay can communicate at transmission speed of 1.544 Mbps, although the technology can reach speeds of 45 Mbps.

Like a ring network, fiber distributed data interface (FDDI) passes data around a ring, but with a bandwidth of 100 Mbps – much faster than a standard 10 - 13 Mbps token ring (or bus) network. FDDI can significantly boost network performance, but this technology is about 10 times more expensive to implement than most LAN networks.

Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks allow for almost unlimited bandwidth on demand. These networks are packet-switched, dividing data into uniform cells, each with 53 groups of 8 bytes, eliminating the need for protocol conversion. ATM creates a virtual connection for the packet transmission, which disappears on the completion of a successful transmission. ATM offers several advantages. It makes possible large increases in bandwidth and provides support for data, video, and voice transmissions on the communications line. It offers virtual networking capabilities, which increase bandwidth utilization and simplify network administration. ATM currently requires fiber-optic cable, but it can transmit up to 2.5 gigabits per second.

Switched hub technologies are often used to boost local area networks. A switched hub can turn many small LANs into one big LAN.

Switched hub technology can also add an ATM-like packet-switching capability to existing LANs, essentially doubling bandwidth.

(Adapted from: Introduction to Information Technology, 2d ed., 2003.

Questions to discuss:

1) What is the main function of Network Operating Systems and Network Management Software?

2) What is the role of telecommunications protocols?

3) What are popular data transmission options? What are their respective advantages?

4) Why does packet-switching technology cause a telecommunications revolution?

Language Practice Activity Task 3. Choose the appropriate word in brackets keeping the meaning of the sentence.

1) These functions are performed (introduced/executed) by various parts of network communications software.

2) The NOS enables (allows/permits) various devices to communicate with each other.

3) Network management software has many functions in operating (managing/controlling) a network.

4) This set of rules and procedures governing (addressing/controlling) transmission across a network is a protocol.

5) Shared network service packages (wraps/puts up) data into frames that are similar to packets.

6) It offers virtual network capabilities (facilities/possibilities).

Task 4. Use the words on the right in the appropriate form that fits the space in the text.

NETWORK PROTOCOLS

The principle functions of protocols in a network are line access and collision 1._. Line access AVOID concerns how the 2. devices gains access to SEND the network to send a message. 3. avoidance COLLIDE refers to 4._ message transmission so that two MANAGE messages do not collide with each other on the network. Other functions of protocols are to identify each device in communication path, to secure the attention of other devices, to verify correct receipt of the 5._ message, to verify that a message TRANSMIT requires transmission because it cannot be correctly 6._, and to perform recovery when errors INTERPRET occur.

Task 5. Choose from the list the appropriate linking word(s) to connect these ideas.

Mostly, moreover, however, although, due to, in accordance with, among something, nevertheless.

1) Communications software provides many functions in a network, _there are error checking, message formatting, communications logs, data security, and translation capabilities.



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