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RUSSIA`S INTEGRATION INTO THE WORLD ECONOMY: THE NEW PARADIGMS OF THE ECONOMIC CULTURE : ...

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Despite of existence of a multitude of tools for measuring the CSR, all of them analyze different directions of the social behavior of the companies. It seems that in the BRICs countries there is no complex methodology of measurement, monitoring and estimation, which would give the objective technique to provide a stakeholder with comparable information about the countries, consider the specificity of companies by their size (large, medium, small enterprises, industry, prevailing market) and operating scale (regional and transnational companies). On the one hand, companies in emerging economies attempt to introduce international principles of transparency, ecological safety, labor relations, and society support. On the other hand, they are compelled to build their policies in the crisis conditions of social sphere when social and economic problems become aggravated and include more and more various strata of society. Low information transparency neither allows getting the complete information on financial and non-financial performance of the company, nor carries additional risk for investors as it becomes impossible to control investments distribution within a company. The number of companies, which publish reports in accordance with the international standards and apply for external social audit and verification is considerably low. In the analyzed countries this positive example is followed only by subsidiaries of multinational corporations which aspire to correspond to the international standards and internal policies of the parent companies.

Absence of complete perception of CSR in the BRICs business community is the following: there is no clear understanding of the meaning and borders of social responsibility. Many companies in India and China consider CSR as an unnecessary western concept a kind of trading barrier. In the majority of companies there is no clear view on the purposes and areas of corporate social policy, its influence on core activities of the company and direct correspondence between CSR and financial gain.

There is no understanding that socially responsible behavior of a company is a sustainable development factor of business and of society as a whole. Not all businessmen consider CSR as an administrative leverage. Given the lack of experience, some companies are not ready to openly negotiate with stakeholders. The reality found on the UN Global Compact database on stakeholders, shows that only large national companies and business units of international enterprises take social responsibility as a policy and strategy of participation in societys life seriously [29].

4. Increasing social responsibilities Formalization of problems of CSR development in the BRIC countries allowed us to develop the uniform concept of increasing the social responsibility, presented in Figure 3. In the structure of the referred concept, the following three blocks are sorted out: problems, actions for perfection of existing CSR model, and expected results.

As the analyzed problems of raising CSR in the BRIC countries run at all hierarchical levels (international, national, corporate, and internal), it is critical to allocate ways of perfection of the CSR model on each of these levels.

What underlies the functioning of an effective CSR is the intention to reveal the requirements and expectations of stakeholders and allocation of companys resources for their satisfaction in the best way [30]. The definition of an accurate structural hierarchy, as well as the segregation of duties will allow making a management control system clear and transparent. By conforming to the corporate governance principles, the company can guarantee efficiency, openness and straight dealing, giving guarantees to its stakeholders.

The effective management system of social responsibility presupposes introduction of systems of short-term planning and internal control. The system of monitoring and estimation in the CSR sphere promotes openness and increases the efficiency of business; it:

Provides signals for the early prevention of backlog;

Defines the position of the company among the best in the field, region, Induces a fast introduction of new approaches at smaller risk; and Reduces expenses for improving the companys position.

The functioning of an internal control system is feasible with the introduction of a series of measures: performance standards, budgeting, and cooperation with consulting companies, project development, and so on. Monitoring and estimation of operating efficiency will allow adjusting its directions according to the mission statement and declared goals.

With the participation in alliances, the company can collaborate in the creation of innovative products, raise professional level, develop partner relations network and promote its own interests. Social auditing is a necessary condition to company transparency. Information disclosure will be a sort of guarantee for all stakeholders, it will allow attracting socially responsible investment funds, involving new partners, expanding possibilities and influencing spheres of the company; hence, it will mobilize new resources. The attraction of public interest to the companys operations will allow improving its image, and attracting additional resources for the realization of the declared goals.

BRICS grouping has a possibility to take lessons from foreign experiences.

Therefore the achievement of the new social contract between the state, the business community and the civil society, a goal that has been achieved in the European social model, is a contemporary need for BRICS as well. Certainly, each country has the features of its unique development, traditions, and national interests. However, in the context of the globalization all members of the world economy need to solve similar problems related to the interests of individuals, the protection of their rights, living and working conditions, as well as their social protection. World models of social responsibility of business formulate vectors of social architecture of the BRICs business and the variants of its development that match the calls of the 21st century.

The analysis of world practices allows for the allocation of some types of corporate social responsibility that vary depending on the orientation vector of programs and state participation. In our opinion, all these features have had a strong impact on the formation of e.g. the Russian model of corporate responsibility.

Though concerning a national model of corporate social responsibility, there are still many academic disputes, too.

The institutional contour of the still new BRICs model of social responsibility should consider essential types of ideological, economic, and political factors that impinge on the public work, so to achieve a balance of interests of all stakeholders.

Activities

Development Alliances with Tax Introduction of Creation of a Social audit

Expected results Figure 6 The concept of raising corporate social responsibility in the BRIC countries The main problem of corporations of the emerging markets countries about social responsibility is the fact that there is a closeness of the information and opacity, and also a poorly developed practice of accounting under the international standards. It is necessary to notice that in each of the five considered countries, the necessity of creation of the uniform tool and the principles of CSR introduction, estimation and drawing up of non-financial reporting is underlined.

5. Conclusions

The present contribution argues that socially responsible behavior business models in the BRICS grouping have many common features. The most appealing socio-economic characteristic of the studied emerging markets underlies the forecasted economic effect on the group development and its integration into the world economy. Moreover, the suggested way to make up for the current lack of the systematic corporate social responsibility resulting in some business and social disadvantages may be included in the local national strategies. We also propose that it is necessary to work out such methodologies of CSR which would be based on the international principles, but would also consider current realities of the analyzed countries. The IRDOs suggestion for a national, or even international, strategy of development of social responsibility may help, too [31].

The present research suggested a framework for raising the corporate social responsibility, which included detailed analysis of the core problems at the national level, then offered some possible structure methods to overcome possible barriers and also proposed some expected results. Such a framework may well be developed into details and implemented by all the members of the BRICs, including the new member country, namely South Africa. We hope to estimate and analyze its impacts as well as its ensuing changes in all those countries, in the near future.

The dynamics of the current stage of corporate development in the context of an increasing corporate social responsibility gives a good possibility to the BRICs business community to raise the level of economic culture and to integrate national corporations into the world map of social responsibility. It will allow generating positive investment and corporate climate in the BRICs business environment underlined by a new world corporate development model.

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GLOBAL MANAGER AND MODERN CHALLENGES: WHAT WEAPON

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Economic development of the world community in the beginning of the XXI century is characterized by globalization processes of the world economic relations and growth of international companies and transnational corporations, their penetration into the markets of the most countries in the world. For many international companies success in the overseas markets is one of the main components of work, since the share of profit received from operations outside the companys country of origin is becoming more and more significant from year to year. This success to a great extent depends on the activity and professional qualification of global managers, possessing the management of all production and organizational processes, and, what is more important and crucial, they are entrusted with human resources management - the main and most fragile asset of any company.

The principal qualities of a global manager are the ability to understand different cultures, be broad-minded and work successfully in a multinational environment. International companies encounter customers and consumers representatives of different cultures, for example, in Latin America business is built on personal trust in Mexico and Argentina one has to be well-acquainted with the partner before signing a contract. In France you should apply directly to the general manager, and in Germany - thoroughly follow all the rules.

Victoria Beliaeva - Deputy Head of International office, Ural Federal Yeltsin University, Russia Appearance of the term global manager, in a wide sense, means reorganization of the way of thinking for managers and students, studying management. To think globally means to spread the concepts and models from bilateral relations (we - to them) to the simultaneous taking account of numerous realities and relations, to act professionally inside this more complex reality. When managing representations in different countries, a global manager has to find, agree and coordinate multiple options of business cooperation, taking into consideration political and economic situation, standards of civil and labor law in each country1.

In order to work effectively in a global environment, managers must possess a number of abilities and skills. Thats exactly what turns a manager into an effective global manager with an all-seeing eye.

A global manager must have:

Ability to develop and use global strategic skills Ability to control modifications and changes Ability to manage cultural differences Ability to create flexible organizational structures and function in them Ability to learn and transfer the knowledge to organization New levels of abilities for creative work and invention Ability for timely recognition of various production and marketing problems and priorities in different places, and solve them with the use of new structures and processes.

. ., . . : . .: , 2003. 189 .

Figure 1. Competence model of the modern global manager Lets consider some of the listed skills. The new global economy will require from global managers the knowledge of international relations and foreign affairs, including global financial markets and behavior of currency exchange rates. To these extensive business skills of a manager it will be necessary to select global responsibilities, in order to take advantage of the international division of labor and see the ways of reducing costs due to the use of global resources. Global thinking, required by the new realities in the sphere of economy and competition, is essential at all levels of management in the company. Managers, who see everything in a global perspective, will have to find a balance between the ability to react to everything going on inside the country and use it abroad. This is exactly what is called to think globally, and act locally. Although some experts in the field of marketing assert that there is a tendency towards standardization observed in the world, the experience of the recent years shows that when taking strategic decisions, managers have to feel both local peculiarities, and global imperatives1.

These examples suggest an idea that the local success depends on achieving a balance between capitalization of resources and needs within the national boundaries and the ability to imagine a world without borders. One aspect of managing this Erll Astrid Interkulturelle Kompetenzen. Erfolgreich kommunizieren zwischen den Kulturen/ Erll Astrid, Gymnich Marion. - Uni-Wissen Kernkompetenzen.: Stuttgart, November 2007, 180 Seiten balance, probably, includes the highest possible approach of the decision-making body to the consumer in order to guarantee satisfaction of local demands. Managing changes in unstable conditions will always be an external challenge. Constant search for balance between global and local pressure in the changing competitive environment will increase the need for frequent reorganization of resources, personnel, technologies, systems of marketing and distribution. Reduction of products life cycles, caused by technological improvements and ways of their production and distribution, accelerates these changes.

In conditions of complicated demands imposed on managers by the global economy, it is unlikely to find a universal organizational form, adequate for all jobs.

Global managers will undoubtedly require much more inventiveness in the organization design.

The task of global managers consists in creation and management of the organization that will help them improve their efficiency. These are the so-called organizations without borders, where the ability to learn, react and be effective is already laid in the administrative heritage of the company. The staff in such firms should demonstrate the abilities of strategic thinking and activity, by means of open exchange of plans, decentralization of strategic assignments, opportunities to develop skills, necessary in the top echelon of management early in the beginning of career and control systems, evaluating performance results by many parameters. Managers must have the ability to efficiently distribute power and responsibility, delegate duties and authority between headquarters and field subdivisions with the aim of bringing decision-making closer to the client. In the light of reforms, taking place in business, demographic shifts and rapid development of new technologies there is one main conclusion, which has actually acquired the status of an imperative: In the new conditions, specialists in business implementation and management (managers) have to undertake new liabilities and act in a new role. And this must be done without delay.

Todays tasks of professionals in the management sphere are notable for complexity and diversity. Companies already do not restrict their activity by national frameworks. More and more organizations are becoming global, placing a huge responsibility on their managers. They have to control people in different parts of the world, where they have never been themselves. This skill must be developed.

Creation of rational methods, proceeding from the forecasted needs for global managers is one of the most important strategic tasks. To become a real global manager, you have to readily accept new knowledge and also seek to understand the others mentality1.

Narrow specialists able to ensure the decrease of production costs or goods promotion in the market will no longer enjoy indisputable success. A leader must have a broader outlook on life, feel none of many traditional fears and not be afraid of risky innovations. He will be expected to possess the ability to refuse excessive Boyatzis Richard The competent manager: a model for effective performance, administration, capability to negotiate and manage situations that went out of control, rather than the ability to give orders.

Specialists, thinking at the multinational level are much closer to global managers. Usually these are people with great experience in the field of international cooperation of several countries. However, this still does not provide a global thinking.

Global perception goes beyond the frameworks of the interethnic and multinational world. It is characterized by mental equidistance from all major markets (of the North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific region). Global thinking is formed on the base of knowledge about the world, regardless of the number of visited countries. The bearer of global thinking may not travel around the world at all, but he must be able to see through the borders of separate territories and countries.

Nowadays there are companies already that encounter real global consumers with identical needs and desires. It is possible that buyers in every country satisfy this or another need differently, but the stable presence of a particular commodity in many markets indicates that its production and sales have reached the stage of global coverage of consumers. In such conditions, globalization of supply may contribute to achieving competitive advantages. Yet, global approach does not presume complete identity of products and their sales everywhere using the same methods. A manager with global mentality should be familiar with different strategies, in order to have the possibility of revealing the consumers interests to the global brand names, goods and services.

A global manager must have the ability to see interconnections in industry and business over a wide area or in several regions. Being responsible for the company operation in a particular country or in a certain market (for example, in the Netherlands), he has to be informed about the situation in the branch and the state of competition not only in this country, but also in other states of Europe, USA and Japan. This can significantly accelerate innovation processes and increase the companys flexibility.

A global manager sequentially accumulates and selects the right information, gradually builds an integrated model based on the universal experience. Thus, companies can use the experience from any part of the world and become more competitive than the firms, guided by the experience gathered in a limited space.

The functions of human resource management in multinational companies are extremely complicated by the need to adapt the personnel-related policy and procedures to differences between the countries of each branch location. In particular, cultural differences of countries, differences in economic development and legislative systems may require the international company to adapt the programs of hiring, firing, training and wages for each country where the international company opens its branches.

Especially great difficulties arise when the culture and laws of the companys native country contradict the culture and laws of the host country. For example, the current USA law on equal rights in employment, prohibiting sex discrimination, contradicts the laws and customs of Saudi Arabia concerning the role of women.

Such conflicts cause problems for the American multinational companies, seeking to ensure that their female managers have the same opportunities to work abroad like their male counterparts.

All international companies and organizations also encounter serious problems when organizing the process of personnel training and development. Managers selected to work abroad have to be provided with additional training in the appropriate skills of intercultural communication. Similarly, training programs for production workers in the host countries should be adjusted, taking into consideration the level of education provided by the local educational system. For example, Toyota, like other big Japanese corporations, following the tradition of lifetime employment, goes to great lengths to hire really right people to its factories and offices. In Japan, Toyota cooperates with the system of secondary education, training and selecting its future workers fresh from school. However, this approach is not applicable in all countries where Toyota operates, because local school systems are often not ready for such partnerships with private firms. In Germany, the system of secondary education provides comprehensive vocational training for the students, but this training is not so focused on specific firms, as in Japan. In public schools of the US, on the contrary, the main emphasis is made on general education, whereas the opportunities of vocational training are quite limited. Besides, in many countries there is absolutely uneducated, as well as unskilled labor. In this regard, Toyota has adjusted its practice of the staff recruitment, selection and training in accordance with the requirements of each country where it operates.

Finally, different countries may have considerably different working conditions and living wage, thats why international companies often have to adapt their payment systems to the needs of the labor market in a particular host country.

They should take into account the peculiarities of local laws, which may require payment of minimum wages or oblige the companies to provide employees with certain benefits, such as annual bonuses or medical insurances. Besides, managers must determine how to pay the leaders, working abroad and potentially facing higher cost of living, deteriorating living conditions and stress due to separation from friends and relatives.

Economical and social conditions of the international public development in the globalization poque decline new aims and needs in the system of higher professional education: necessity to train competent, mobile, competitive specialists, who are ready to solve global professional questions in the conditions of polylingual business environment.

THE ADVANTAGE OF SMALL SIZE AND COMMON SENSE:

SLOVENIAS TRANSITION

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For more than two decades Slovenia has been a successful story of transition among European post-socialistic countries. This is evidenced by a high GDP per capita ($24,000), relatively low unemployment (8%), low indebtedness (public debt as % of GDP 44%) and a high HDI (0,828). The story of Slovenian transition is worth telling, especially if one takes into consideration the special circumstances this post-Yugoslavian republic found itself in at the begging of the 90s. Slovenia has undergone a three-fold transition:

- from a socialistic to a market economy, - from a regional to national economy, - from a federal republic to an independent state.

The particularity of Slovenian transition stems from the specificity of the Yugoslavian model. In the Socialistic Federal Republic of Yugoslavia the Soviet economical model was abandoned in the 50s and henceforth the state centralisation gradually diminished. Several reforms (co-created inter alia by Slovenians Edvard Kardelj and then in the 60s, Alexander Bajt) laid foundations for a particular quasimarket socialistic system with a unique enterprise ownership structure (so called social ownership) based on self-management and a unique institutional structure.

Consequently, even before reforms of the 90s Slovenia had had already relatively independent management structures, i.e. managers with a developed sense of responsibility for a particular companys results.

Wedging pros and cons of independence, despite concerns about the consequences of loosing Yugoslavian market of 23 million consumers, Slovenian opted for sovereignty in 1991. Challenged by a three-fold transition, Slovenian elites faced the dilemma of choosing the right model: shock therapy, suggested by foreign experts, or gradualism. Eventually, in the conceptual rivalry between the camp of Kore-Mencinger-Simoneti (gradualism and decentralised approach towards the ownership) and the one of Sachs-Peterle-Umek (shock therapy, the centralised approach), the former has won.

Slovenia presents a particular case of a consequent gradual path to capitalism the so called soft transition. One of the main characteristic features is a specific privatisation strategy which combines a mixture of three approaches: social Dr. Alicja Curanovi, The Institute of International Relations University of Warsaw, Poland, a.curanovic@uw.edu.pl distribution of shares, internal buyouts at discount prices and commercial privatisation.

As a result, many former state companies obtained a dispersed ownership, shared by internal (managers, workers, pensioners), external and quasigovernmental owners. Additionally, until recently more than half of the banking sector was still state-owned. The result of the chosen path is a corporatist welfare state. Slovenia has relatively strong unions and collective wage bargaining is the predominant model; Slovenia provides a high legal employment protection, while social inequality is among the lowest in the EU; Slovenians display a high satisfaction with the standard of living. The state has kept a role of an important actor on the market, and is still a prominent owner of dominant domestic companies (e.g. biggest shareholder in Krka, Gorenje, Petrol etc.) In short, the specifics of Slovenias transition are: relatively low level of privatisation, domination of insider buyouts, relatively low level of foreign investment.

A few reasons could be named as those which persuaded Slovenian elites for choosing gradualism. In my paper, I focus on two factors: a socio-psychological and a cultural one.

The socio-psychological factor is connected with the phenomenon of reproduction of elites. In case of Slovenia the left-liberal wing (formations of mostly de post-communist politicians), i.e. the Liberal Democracy of Slovenia and the Social Democrats, has managed to preserve the power until 2004. According to research of Andrej Rus and Hajdeja Igli conducted in 1995, only 17% of the old elite lost its status from 1988, while 83% maintained its position; only 23% were newcomers. The old elite as well as the newcomers have expanded and changed their network of social contacts. However, both groups recruited from their own environment, i.e.

post-communists from the second-rank former communistic echelon, and the newcomers form the opposition. In terms of the reproduction of elites, Slovenia ranks the highest among all post-socialistic countries, i.e. the largest percent of the old elite preserved its status. This status quo at the top power structures (i.e., a corporatist network of groups of interest closely connected and intermingled with holders of political power) is pointed as one of the conditions which allowed a smooth transition. An additional factor was small size of Slovenia, which allowed a higher than average level of coordination of this process.

Another element, which I find very interesting, is the factor of culture and identity. The declaration of independency in 1991 gave birth to the first national Slovenian state in modern history. In the past, the main factor, which brought together the Slavic-speaking population, living under German domination since VIII century, was language and in the wider sense culture. Therefore, Slovenians are considered a cultural nation for whom the main points of reference are not military victories, but culture, economy and, more recently, sport. Successes and achievements in those spheres build up the feeling of national pride. It is no coincidence that in the ranking of the most important Slovenians in the history the two first places are occupied by a writer and a protestant reformer Franc Preeren and Primo Trubar (interestingly enough, the fourth place goes to Josip Broz Tito).

Moreover, analysing the self-identification process of Slovenians, researchers, e.g.

Sabina Mihelj, underline the impact of the protestant ethic. As a matter of fact, although the majority of Slovenians are Catholics, there are reasons to argue for the existence of some sort of Slovenian Protestant nationalism. This can be traced in national myths and auto-stereotypes of Slovenians. They consider themselves honest, hard-working people with a strong common sense (Alma Selimovi 2004). Bogomir Novak states that in opposition to Serbian nation of warriors, Slovenians are a nation of entrepreneurs (which could be symbolised by the figure of the national hero the salt smuggler Matija Karpan). From the conviction of their professional ethos, selfdiscipline and common sense Slovenians differentiate themselves from Austrians (demoralised city dwellers) as well as all Balkan neighbours (wild, lazy, not civilised).

Hard work fostered by the common sense is the source of Slovenian modern national identity, which is reflected in the way Slovenian elites approached the issue of transition. Pragmatism and gradualism were the pillars admits Joe Mencinger one of the main conceptualists of the gradualism. It is important to stress that in the begging of the 90s Slovenians, just like all other socialistic elites, found themselves under pressure from foreign advisors and institutions to opt for shock therapy.

Nevertheless, the majority managed to withstand the pressure and develop a specific, and one could argue, a very Slovenian way. It was due to the awareness of the elites and confidence in Slovenian economic culture, pragmatism and national commons sense. Slovenian academics, responsible in the 90s for shaping reforms, asked today for the source of their self-confidence answer that back then they were not as strongly burdened with complexes as their colleagues form other socialistic countries. As Joe Mencinger explains, they had had contacts with Western economic thought before, were not so intensely antagonized towards it and had a decidedly more critical approach toward it and solutions it proposed. Last but not least the socialistic model didnt bankrupt completely in Slovenia; in fact, it was still perceived as a functioning system with a potential for repair. Therefore, Slovenian elites did not adopt a formalised foreign recipe but they used their particular advantages, including aspects of economical culture. A good example of this is the high awareness Slovenians have of their national products. The Slovenians brands are part of national canon and young people sometimes hold them as even more emblematic to their country then the national anthem or flag. What is more, during the period of transition Slovenian products never lost their appeal, which happened in other socialistic countries when markets were flooded with foreign products. On one hand, such attachment was in part an effect of the past policy of the government and on the other hand, in transition, this very policy has sought way to capitalize on the attachment of Slovenians to their national products. Companies like Gorenje, Krka, Elanre present something more than just labels, for Slovenians they almost form a part of national heritage and are a component of the

Abstract

Slovenian self-image.

Furthermore, they also influence Slovenias international image. This can be observed in post-Yugoslavian markets where Slovenian products have been traditionally associated with high quality. For example, after the acknowledgement of Kosovos independency by Slovenia, Serbian demonstrators announced the boycott of Slovenian chain of supermarket Mercator and were pouring Slovenian milk Alpsko on the streets in sign of protest. In common perception, Slovenia was, to a certain degree, equated with Slovenian products.

It is necessarily to stress that the choice of gradualism is commonly perceived in Slovenia as the right way despite having certain weak points (e.g. stalemates among interest groups). Nevertheless, as Mojmir Mrak points out, gradualism seems to be a viable alternative only for relatively well-off economies and may not be an option for many other transition economies.

If there is a lesson to be learned from Slovenian transition it is one of necessity of retaining courage to restrain outside pressure and finding confidence in ones own culture and sensitiveness to economic tradition, when looking for solutions in times of transition. Slovenian elites had no psychological blocks to use the good elements of Yugoslavia socialistic solutions. They did not simply switch to another paradigm and sought guidance in common sense.

In my paper I shall elaborate on the aforementioned points.

CULTURE-BOUND MODELS OF CORPORATE SOCIAL

RESPONSIBILITY

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) seems to be an internationally accepted form of corporate business self-regulation. CSR policy should function as a selfregulating mechanism whereby business monitors and ensures its active compliance with the spirit of the law und ethical standards. The goal of CSR is to embrace responsibility for the company's actions and encourage a positive impact through its activities on the environment, consumers, employees, communities, stakeholders and all other members of the public sphere.

Social partnership has different traditions and acceptance/values in different cultures.

The seemingly international norms of CSR are not in all countries equally accepted and practicable and therefore not everywhere advantageous for enterprises acting globally.

Bei der Betrachtung sozialpartnerschaftlicher Modelle, u.a. der CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (CSR) oder auch der damit verbundenen Wirtschaftsethik, und potenzieller Synergien, die sich diesbezglich bei der internationalen Kooperation ergeben knnen, muss davon ausgegangen werden, dass sie einen Teil der menschlichen Kultur(en) bilden.

Fragen, die im Beitrag einzelnen beleuchtet werden sollen, sind folgende:

1. Der Kultur- bzw. Lebensweltbegriff 2. Die Rolle des kulturellen Gedchtnisses 3. Das System des Wirtschaftskreislaufes in seiner Kulturgebundenheit 4. Das Dlfersche Modell der Unternehmensumwelt 5. Corporate Social Responsibility und Internationalisierung 1. Der Kultur- bzw. Lebensweltbegriff Wenn davon ausgegangen werden kann, das Corporate Social Responsibility ein kulturelles Phnomen ist, muss der Ausgangpunkt der Betrachtungen somit die Definition des Kulturverstndnisses sein. Aus einer unberblickbaren Vielzahl von Kulturdefinitionen passen aus der Sicht des Wissenschaftsbereiches Interkulturellen Wirtschaftskommunikation nur ausgewhlte:

Dr. Marion Dathe Geschftsfhrerin interculture.de e.V, Fachbereich Interkulturelle Wirtschaftskommunikation der Friedrich-Schiller-Universitt Jena Alexander Thomas definiert Kultur als ein Orientierungssystem, das allen Mitgliedern einer Gemeinschaft vertraut ist. "Dieses Orientierungssystem wird aus spezifischen Symbolen gebildet und in der jeweiligen Gesellschaft usw. tradiert. Es beeinflusst das Wahrnehmen, Denken, Werten und Handeln aller ihrer Mitglieder und definiert somit deren Zugehrigkeit zur Gesellschaft. Kultur als Orientierungssystem strukturiert ein fr die sich der Gesellschaft zugehrig fhlenden Individuen spezifisches Handlungsfeld und schafft damit die Voraussetzung zur Entwicklung eigenstndiger Formen der Umweltbewltigung. Jrgen Bolten stellt faktische berlappungen und Vernetzungen einzelner Kulturen (die Eingrenzung ausschlieen) und kulturelle Vernderungsdynamiken in den Mittelpunkt: Kulturen sind keine Container, sie sind weder homogen noch mit dem Zirkel voneinander abgrenzbar Es handelt sich um offene Vernetzungen historisch vermittelter Reziprozittsverhltnisse. Leider ist das alltgliche Kulturverstndnis aber aufgeladen mit Konnotationen der Zugehrigkeit und Ausgeschlossenheit, der Teilhabe und bervorteilung (vgl. Huntington3) von Gesellschaftsmitgliedern.

Die Vorstellung der Inhomogenitt und Vernderungsdynamik (siehe Bolten, oben) von Kulturen macht es aber mglich zu zeigen, welche kulturellen Faktoren systemisch gesehen welche verschiedenen Grundverstndnisse von Corporate Social Responsibility erzeugt haben knnen und wie sie sich verndern, wenn sich Kultursysteme verndert. Danach sollte es nicht schwer fallen nachzuvollziehen, wie komplex und auerordentlich schwierig die Vereinbarung kulturbergreifender (internationaler) Standards sozialer Verantwortung sowohl fr Unternehmen und Organisationen als auch fr staatliche Institutionen ist.

Es soll im Folgenden gezeigt werden, wie einerseits kulturelle Systeme die Interdependenz von Sozialpartnern prgen. Zum zweiten lsst sich zeigen, wie stark Systemvernderungen (selbst bei kultureller ffnung/ Internationalisierung) zu Trgheit neigen, ungeachtet der fr viele Menschen scheinbar rasant erscheinenden tglichen Vernderungen. Die nur sehr indirekt wahrnehmbare relative Trgheit lsst sich mit dem Begriff der sog. Lebenswelt erklren:

Die Lebenswelt bezeichnet laut Schtz/ Luckmann die natrliche Einstellung, die dem Menschen - die Existenz seiner alltglichen Welt, - die Erfahrungen, die er in ihr macht, und - die Bedeutungen, die die Dinge in ihr haben, natrlich und nicht hinterfragbar erscheinen lassen. Als Ganzes kann diese Lebenswelt nicht in Zweifel gezogen werden, hchstens einzelne Aspekte knnen angezweifelt werden. Der Mensch orientiert sich in der Lebenswelt, indem er Thomas, Alexander (2003): Interkulturelle Kompetenz. Grundlagen, Probleme und Konzepte.

Erwgen, Wissen, Ethik 14 (1). S. 138.

Bolten, Jrgen (2007): Interkulturelle Kompetenz. Landeszentrale fr politische Bildung Thringen.

Huntington, Samuel P. (2006): Kampf der Kulturen. Die Neugestaltung der Weltpolitik im 21.

Jahrhundert. Hamburg: Spiegel.

pragmatischen Maximen folgt und Handlungsroutinen etabliert. Ihre Stabilitt bezieht die Lebenswelt folglich auch aus dem Optimismus des Handelnden, - dass sich Erlebnisse und Situationen gleichfrmig gestalten und - dass er selbst dank seiner Erfahrungen auch in Zukunft bestimmte Fhigkeiten einsetzen und Handlungen ausfhren kann, die sich schon frher bewhrt haben. Also ist die Lebenswelt fr Menschen normal, plausibel und hat einen Sinn. Erst, wenn der oben genannte Optimismus verlorengeht (u.a. durch Probleme, Konflikte/ Krisen, aber auch durch den Kontakt und Vergleich mit anderen Kulturen) kann die Bereitschaft zu Vernderungen der eigenen Lebenswelt entstehen.

Allerdings bedeutet die Bereitschaft zur Vernderung einzelner Individuen nicht automatisch die Bereitschaft aller Gesellschaftsmitglieder.

2. Die Rolle des kulturellen Gedchtnisses Zum Verstndnis der Vernderungstrgheit kann auch der Begriff des kulturellen Gedchtnisses beitragen. Er bezeichnet die Tradition in uns, die ber Generationen, in jahrhunderte-, ja teilweise jahrtausendelanger Wiederholung gehrteten Texte, Bilder und Riten, die unser Zeit- und Geschichtsbewusstsein, unser Selbst- und Weltbild prgen.2 Individuell wird das kulturelle Gedchtnis durch Sozialisation und insbes. durch Bildung erworben. Es ermglicht sinnstiftend einen Lebensentwurf nach historischen, religisen, mythischen oder philosophischen Vorbildern. Auch ein unbewusst gelebtes Schicksal ist aus der Perspektive des kulturellen Gedchtnisses ein Kulturprodukt und ein Produkt der Wiederholung. An drei Beispielen aus Lndern, in denen CSR stark sprbare Unterschiede aufweisen drfte, sollen auf den nchsten Seiten ausgewhlte, wichtige Bestandteile des kulturellen Gedchtnisses exemplarisch aufgezeigt werden, die CSR beeinflussen. Dazu werden weiterhin auch das Modell des Wirtschaftskreislaufes (Punkt 3.) und das Dlfersche Modell der Unternehmensumwelt (Punkt 4.) herangezogen.

3. Das System des Wirtschaftskreislaufes in seiner Kulturgebundenheit Allgemein ist das Modell des Wirtschaftskreislaufes in seinen verschiedenen Fassetten gelufig.

Vgl. Schtz, Alfred; Luckmann, Thomas (1975): Strukturen der Lebenswelt (Soziologische Texte;

Bd. 82). Luchterhand, Neuwied.

Jan Assmann (2006): Das kulturelle Gedchtnis. In: Thomas Mann und gypten. C. H. Beck, Mnchen, S. 70.

Aleida Assmann, Jan Assmann (1994): Das Gestern im Heute. Medien und soziales Gedchtnis.

In: Klaus Merten, Siegfried J. Schmidt, Siegfried Weischenberger (Hrsg.): Die Wirklichkeit der Medien. Eine Einfhrung in Kommunikationswissenschaften. Opladen.

In der Abbildung scheint zunchst die Proportionalitt aller Teile als idealtypisch unterstellt. Man kann von einem systemischen Ansatz ausgehen, muss aber die kulturgebundene Verschiedenheit der Proportionen bercksichtigen. Auch kulturhistorisch gibt es keine deckungsgleichen Proportionen, vergleicht man die landesspezifischen Systeme untereinander. Weder der Idealtypus noch einzelne Lndermodelle knnen damit direkt zum Vorbild fr andere Lndermodelle werden, ohne dass die kulturhistorischen und aktuellen Grundlagen dabei missachtet und verletzt wrden.

Betrachtet man allein zwei Modelle (eigene Darstellung), wird das deutlich:

http://www.hoch-im-kurs.de/files/30/Erweiterter_Wirtschaftskreislauf_mit_Staat.jpg Abb. 2: Darstellung der CSR-Partner im Wirtschaftskreislauf der USA als Produkt der Wirtschaftskulturgeschichte (vgl. oben) Abb.3: Darstellung der Werte der CSR-Partner im Wirtschaftskreislauf der BRD als Produkt der Wirtschaftskulturgeschichte (vgl. oben) 4. Das Dlfersche Modell der Unternehmensumwelt Kommunikatives (also auch sozialpartnerschaftliches) Handeln ist immer durch lebensweltliche Kontexte bestimmt. Diese knnen zum besseren Verstndnis ihrer inneren Struktur mit Hilfe des Modells der Unternehmensumwelt1 von E. Dlfer dargestellt werden.

Abb. 4: Dlfers Bereiche der kulturgebundenen Unternehmensumwelt (um die Die Bereiche der Unternehmensumwelt (die sich auch auf CSR auswirken) sind nach Dlfer folgendermaen bestimmt:

Bereich 1: Zu den natrlichen Gegebenheiten, die als Basisschicht unmittelbar auf den produzierenden oder konsumierenden Menschen einwirken und darber hinaus auch die kulturellen Umweltbedingungen beeinflussen und prgen, gehren die topografischen Bedingungen (Gewsser, Gebirge, Wsten, Steppen die lebenswichtigen Ressourcen (Trinkwasser, nicht verschmutzte die klimatischen Bedingungen (Temperatur, Luftfeuchtigkeit, Luftdruck, Luftbewegungen, Niederschlge), Vgl. Dlfer, E. (1992): Internationales Management in unterschiedlichen Kulturbereichen.

Mnchen: Oldenbourg.

Bodenschtze und landwirtschaftliche Anbaumglichkeiten (als prgende wirtschaftliche Standortfaktoren).

Bereich 2: Das Weltbild des Menschen ist [] schon immer durch seine Beziehung zu den natrlichen Gegebenheiten seiner regionalen Umwelt geprgt gewesen. Dabei ist jedoch die Grenze zwischen naturwissenschaftlicher Ursache/Wirkungs-Erkenntnis und mythologisch-magischer Realittserklrung [] flexibel.1 Ein wesentliches Element verhaltensbeeinflussender Umweltfaktoren ist daneben die menschliche Fhigkeit, die erkannten Ursache/WirkungsZusammenhnge in bewusste zielorientierte Handlungen und Wirkungsprozesse umzusetzen2.

Bereich 3: Unter kulturell bedingten Wertvorstellungen versteht Dlfer alle subjektiv festgelegten Prferenzen des Individuums, wie religise Glaubensinhalte, ethische Normen, berlieferte Verhaltensvorschriften und ideologische Postulate, individuelle Motive und Lebensziele sowie Erziehungsgrundstze.

Bereich 4: Der Stellenwert der sozialen Beziehungen und Bindungen hat einen wesentlichen Einfluss auf die Interaktionsmglichkeiten der Unternehmung in ihrer Aufgabenumwelt. [] Denn der Einzelne ist als Glied seiner sozialen Umwelt bestrebt, den Erwartungen der Gruppe, in der er lebt und arbeitet, gerecht zu werden.

Dies allerdings nicht ohne den Versuch, die eigenen Intensionen und Wnsche [] zur Geltung zu bringen und dadurch ggf. das Gruppenleben seinerseits zu beeinflussen.3 In der Regel manifestieren sich die sozialen Beziehungen in Familien-, Branchen- und Berufsstrukturen sowie den Genderrollen in Familie und Gesellschaft, so auch CSR von Unternehmen.

Bereich 5: Die rechtlich-politischen Normen resultieren aus den sozialen Beziehungen und Bindungen. Sie sind in der Regel in der Rechtsordnung eines Staates verankert und bestehen aus der Gesamtheit der in ihm erlassenen positiven (schriftlich fixierten) Rechtnormen und den gewohntheitsrechtlichen Regelungen.

[] Im Einzelnen gehren dazu Gesetze, Verordnungen, Verfgungen, Satzungen, Gerichtsurteile und Vertrge.4 Hierzu knnen auch staatliche Regeln/ Einflussnahme auf CSR gehren.

Bei Dlfers Modell muss ebenfalls vom systemischen Ansatz ausgegangen werden, auch wenn nicht alle Faktoren jeweils deutlich sichtbar sind, sich kulturelle Einflsse oft zunchst unmerklich vollziehen und insgesamt von kulturellem Wandel als invisible-hand-process auszugehen ist.

So knnten sich fr die 3 betrachteten Kulturrume intern folgende Relationen ergeben, die fr CSR relevant sind:

USA (infolge Neubesiedlung des Landes): Gemeinsamer Aushandlungsprozess sozialer Normen und Werte in rauer Umgebung (natrliche Bedingungen) bei schwacher staatlicher Einflussnahme (rechtlich-politische Normen), Dto., S. 252.

Dto., S. 259.

Dto., S. 303.

Dto., S. 331 ff.

Sozialpartnerschaft mit viel Eigenengagement zum Erhalt des sozialen Friedens und von Freiheit und Erfolg fr den Einzelnen. Entstehung des ursprnglichen Modells der CSR Deutschland: Ressourcenknappheit ber Jahrhunderte (natrliche Bedingungen) und frhe Industrialisierung (Stand der Technologien) verbunden mit der notwendigen frhen Entwicklung des (Berufs-)Bildungssystems, und Unsicherheitsvermeidung1 infolge sozialer Katastrophen und Kriege verbunden mit der Idee des Sozialstaates in der BRD/ auch des sozialistischen Staates DDR 1949rechtlich-politische Normen). Import und kulturelle Adaptation des ursprnglichen Modells der CSR, u.a. Erweiterung um die Kategorie Nachhaltigkeit Russland: Ressourcenreichtum, der keine Einschrnkungen verlangt/e (natrliche Bedingungen), spte u.a. die Werte der buerlichen Gemeinde und der Altglubigen einbeziehende Entwicklung des Kapitalismus, starke zentralstaatliche Steuerung mit bertragung vieler Sozialfunktionen an die sozialistischen Grobetriebe in ca. 70 Jahren Sowjetmacht; Transformation in den 1990er Jahren mit radikalem Wertewandel, u.a. die Sozialpolitik betreffend (bei dem zunchst die neoliberalistische Marktwirtschaft ein Entwicklungsmodell zu sein schien).

- Annherung an fr Russland historisch untypische westliche Modelle der CSR bei Beibehaltung sozialer Funktionen des Zentralstaates in Kombination mit extremer Kapitalakkumulation in kurzer Zeit in einzelnen Hnden;

- historisch erprobte gegenseitige soziale Verantwortung von BevlkerungsIngroups, die zuverlssig funktioniert;

- zentralstaatlich gesteuerte Herausbildung privater Absicherungsinstitutionen (Sozialversicherungssysteme u..);

- zunchst wenig Interesse von Unternehmen an CSR, da neue Tradierungen (z.B. CSR als Imagevorteil gegenber Kunden) noch nicht reifen konnten und - die eigenen Vorteile fr Unternehmen auf eine andere Konstellation im Wirtschaftskreislauf treffen als z.B. in den USA als Mutterland des CSR.

Corporate Social Responsibility und Internationalisierung Fhrende internationale Organisationen haben sich stark gemacht fr verbindliche Regelungen von CSR. Dazu gehren die OECD-Leitstze fr multinationale Unternehmen2, der Global Compact der Vereinten Nationen3 und die Eine der Strukturbedingungen fr den Umgang mit unternehmerischer Verantwortung in Deutschland stellt die Tradition des starken Staates dar. Die Erwartungshaltung an den Staat, Gesellschaft umfassend zu gestalten, ist vor diesem Hintergrund stark ausgeprgt. Auch aus dieser Tradition heraus ist die Bundesrepublik Deutschland als Sozialstaat ausgestaltet. Die Grundlage hierfr wurde Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts mit dem Bismarckschen Modell der Sozialversicherung gelegt, die gleichzeitig eine korporatistische Verflechtung von Staat und Gesellschaft widerspiegelt.

(Studie BMU 2004, S. 29) http://www.oecd.org/document/3/0,3746,de_34968570_34968855_41979843_1_1_1_1,00.html http://www.unglobalcompact.org/ Dreigliedrige Grundsatzerklrung der Internationalen Arbeitsorganisation ber multinationale Unternehmen und Sozialpolitik1, u.a. auch der Leitfaden fr gesellschaftliche Verantwortung von Organisationen (ISO 26000). Sie sollen die Umsetzung der bernahme sozialer Verantwortung durch Unternehmen auf internationaler Ebene frdern. Sie beschreiben die Erwartungen an Unternehmen in konomischer, kologischer und sozialer Hinsicht (vgl. oben).

Die Handlungsfelder der sozialen und kologischen Dimensionen der Unternehmen, die die gesellschaftliche Verantwortung wahrnehmen mchten2, gliedern sich in:

- betrieblichen Umweltschutz - Bercksichtigung kologischer Aspekte in der Beschaffung - kologische Produktverantwortung - Interessen der Mitarbeiter - die Bercksichtigung der Arbeitsbedingungen - Verbraucherschutz - Kundeninteressen.

Sie versprechen jedoch nicht nur sozialen Frieden, Ansehen des Unternehmens und Wohlfahrt der MitarbeiterInnen und Kunden, sondern auch groe Mehrausgaben der Unternehmen.

Doch Fragen der Akzeptanz und Durchfhrbarkeit von CSR bleiben demzufolge auf der Tagesordnung:

Ungeachtet der aus kulturhistorischer Sicht und des kulturgebundenen Wertespektrums in den Lndern und Regionen sehr voneinander abweichenden Voraussetzungen sollen die o.g. Vereinheitlichungen international gelten.

Es fragt sich jedoch, ist das berhaupt mglich?

Gesellschaftliche Verantwortung wurde fr international ttige Unternehmen zur Pflicht gemacht: International ttige Unternehmen mit Sitz in Deutschland sind verpflichtet, sich aufgrund ihrer politischen Aktivitten auf EU-Ebene und wegen des Einsatzes im angloamerikanischen Sprachraum mit gesellschaftlicher Verantwortung auseinanderzusetzen. Gelten also hauptschlich angloamerikanische als internationale Standards?

Wenn nur in der deutschen Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte auch Nachhaltigkeit ein wichtiges Kriterium ist , ist Nachhaltigkeit dann eine Erweiterung der bergreifenden CSRRichtlinien (ein Zusatz) nur fr Deutschland?

http://www.ilo.org/empent/Publications/WCMS_094386/lang--en/index.htm Das Prinzip der Freiwilligkeit muss betont werden: Alles andere widersprche dem Begriff der Verantwortung: sie bedeutet die Mglichkeit, fr die Folgen eigener oder fremder Handlungen Rechenschaft abzulegen. Sie drckt sich darin aus, bereit und fhig zu sein, spter Antwort auf mgliche Fragen zu deren Folgen zu geben. Eine Grundvoraussetzung hierfr ist die Fhigkeit zur bewussten Entscheidung. (http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verantwortung) Siehe: http://www.experto.de/b2b/marketing/die-gesellschaftliche-verantwortung-vonunternehmen-crs-corporate-social-responsibility-teil-1.html Skeptisch stimmen folgende Entwicklungsresultate einer Studie der Europischen Kommission:

Abb.5: Realisierungsgrad der EU-Nachhaltigkeitsziele Wenn es sich bei CSR- Kriterien um allgemeinmenschliche Werte handelte, die im Rahmen von CSR beachtet werden sollten , wren dann nicht von vorherein sehr gute Erfolgschancen vorbestimmt?

Studie BMU 2004, S. 63.

Dem widerspricht allerdings, dass allein schon die Menschenrechte selbst keine kulturungebundene Kategorie ist.

Abschlieende Betrachtungen:

Das Konzept der CSR ist wie dargestellt aus dem spezifisch angloamerikanischen Kontext heraus entstanden. Die weltweite Verbreitung des Konzepts (bei weitem nicht seiner Umsetzungen) wurde durch die Globalisierung mageblich befrdert, trifft aber berall weiterhin auf andere strukturelle Rahmenbedingungen. Die gesellschaftliche Rolle von Unternehmen hat z. B. in Deutschland ohnehin erst seit Mitte der 1990er Jahre verstrkt ffentliche Aufmerksamkeit gefunden1:

Abb. 6: Generationen der CSR-Managementpraxis (Studie BMU 2004) Diese Unterschiede und begrenzte Passgenauigkeit des US-Konzepts erschweren dabei die Nutzung des Begriffs CSR in Europa insgesamt und in Deutschland im Speziellen. Gerade fr KMU (kleine und mittlere Unternehmen Mittelstand), deren Vielfltigkeit bekannt ist, sollten alternative bzw. kombinierte Begrifflichkeiten genutzt und gefrdert werden.

Die insgesamt aber relativ groe Verantwortung von Unternehmen (und damit verbundenen groen Ausgaben) aufgrund hoher gesetzlicher Auflagen in Deutschland wird in der internationalen CSR-Community kaum wahrgenommen.

Dieser Umstand fhrt dazu, dass CSR nicht hinreichend als Wettbewerbsfaktor fr deutsche Unternehmen genutzt werden kann.2 Damit knnen sich also Wettbewerbsnachteile und Unternehmensverluste ergeben, die wiederum auf die Mglichkeiten/ Ressourcen fr CSR negativ zurckwirken.

Sicherlich geschuldet dem Erwartungsdruck u. a. der Menschen Ostdeutschlands im Zuge der Wiedervereinigung, in die die Idee der staatlichen Absicherung mittransportiert wurde.

Studie BMU 2004, S. 25.

Im Zuge der Globalisierung findet in Deutschland und anderen europischen Lndern ein, wenn auch vielfach hinausgezgerter Wandel der Staatlichkeit statt1.

Die traditionellen Strukturbedingungen verndern sich; der Staat zieht sich aus einem Teil seiner bisherigen Aktionsbereiche zurck. In der Folge ist die deutsche Staatsausgabenquote, gemessen am Anteil der Staatsausgaben am nominalen Bruttoinlandsprodukt, mit 44,7 Prozent schon im Jahr 2007 auf den niedrigsten Stand seit 1990 gesunken.

Unternehmen, so legen Umfrageergebnisse nahe, stehen dem so wahrgenommenen partiellen Rckzug des Staates aus seinen bisherigen Aktionsbereichen ambivalent gegenber: Einerseits begren sie die Erweiterung ihres Handlungsspielraums und sind der Ansicht, dass Unternehmerinnen und Unternehmer eine grere gesellschaftliche Verantwortung htten als andere soziale Gruppen, gleichzeitig mchten sie aber nicht als Zahlmeister bisher als staatlich verstandene Aufgaben finanzieren. 71 Prozent der Unternehmen sind der Ansicht, dass durch die Globalisierung nicht nur die Mglichkeit fr, sondern auch der Druck auf Unternehmen wchst, sich verstrkt international gesellschaftlich und politisch einzubringen. Die in der sozialen Marktwirtschaft angestrebte Verbindung des kapitalistischen Prinzips mit einer fairen Ausgestaltung der Gesellschaft sieht auch eine Mehrheit der Bevlkerung nicht erreicht. 56 Prozent der Menschen beurteilen die Einkommens- und Vermgensverteilung in der BRD als ungerecht; 66 Prozent der Bevlkerung fordern mehr Umverteilungsmanahmen durch den Staat, gleichzeitig beurteilen allerdings 80 Prozent der Bevlkerung die staatlichen Abgaben und Steuern als zu hoch3. Die Forderung nach strkeren staatlichen Interventionen in das Wirtschaftsgeschehen wurde zuletzt im Zuge der Krise der Finanzmrkte des Jahres 2008 wieder verstrkt erhoben. Der Zusammenbruch der Finanzmrkte ist wieder ein Weckruf an die Politik, an die Medien und die Interessenverbnde, grundstzlich ber das Verhltnis von Markt und Staat (u.a. in Deutschland) neu nachzudenken. Es wre fr die Zukunft der Demokratie wie der Marktwirtschaft fatal, wenn man nach der Krise einfach in den alten Gleisen fortfahren wollte. Konzeptionell muss es in allen Bereichen des Wirtschaftslebens darum gehen, von einem Staat unter der Aufsicht des Marktes wieder zu einem Markt unter der Aufsicht des Staates kommen. Es kann nicht angehen, dass die Lebensverhltnisse der Menschen in erster Linie vom Markt bestimmt werden. Der Staat muss in der Lage sein, die Marktkrfte so zu kanalisieren, dass sie den Menschen dienen.

Wie knnte ein Kurswechsel aussehen? Wenn der Staat eine aktivere Rolle wahrnehmen soll, bentigt er finanzielle Ressourcen und Handlungskompetenzen.

Backhaus-Maul, Holger (2006): Gesellschaftliche Verantwortung von Unternehmen. Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte 12/2006: S. 35.

http://www.bertelsmann-stiftung.de/cps/rde/xchg/SID-0FB7C68D-3C5C04AF/bst/hs.xsl/501.htm Dto.

Studie BMU 2004, S. 25.

Der in diesem Jahrzehnt lange Zeit vorherrschende Prozess der Entstaatlichung muss daher gestoppt werden. Dies erfordert vor allem, dass von weiteren Steuersenkungen Abstand genommen wird. Die fr die Wettbewerbsfhigkeit u.a. der deutschen Wirtschaft und den Zusammenhalt der Gesellschaft gleichermaen erforderlichen Bildungsinvestitionen knnen nur vom Staat geleistet werden. Dies gilt auch fr Zukunftsinvestitionen im Bereich der Infrastruktur sowie fr Forschung und Entwicklung. Das kann nicht allein unternehmerischer Verantwortung berlassen werden. Mehr Handlungskompetenzen bentigt der Staat auch auf dem Arbeitsmarkt.

Wer dies als einen staatlichen Eingriff in den Marktprozess ablehnt, hat nicht verstanden, was unter Wettbewerb gemeint ist. Es sollte dabei darum gehen, dass leistungsfhigere und innovativere Unternehmen erfolgreicher sind als andere. Es wre falsch, wenn sich im Wettbewerb Unternehmen durchsetzen wrden, die sich vor allem dadurch auszeichnen, die Lhne ihrer Arbeitnehmer besonders tief zu drcken (ein Zeichen des Abrckens von der CSR).

Fr die Zukunft der Sozialen Marktwirtschaft wie fr die Demokratie gibt es Gefahren. Die Marktwirtschaft kann sich auf Dauer nur dann behaupten, wenn sie fr die Mehrzahl der Menschen eine sprbare Verbesserung der Lebensverhltnisse ermglicht. Dies wird nicht gelingen ohne einen starken Staat, der durch hohe Zukunftsinvestitionen und robuste soziale Leitplanken dafr sorgt, dass auch die Interessen der zuknftigen Generationen wie auch der weniger leistungsfhigen Menschen Bercksichtigung finden.

Doch auch ein Defizit der Handlungsverantwortung der Unternehmen ist manifest: Die Aktivitten gehen meist an zentralen Problemen vorbei, weil sie (1) lediglich lokaler Natur sind und weil (2) eine Kooperation und Koordination (von Aktivitten) mehrerer, aller Unternehmen nicht stattfindet. Nicht aus vermeintlich blo ethischen Grnden, sondern um der Nachhaltigkeit des eigenen Geschftserfolges willen sind die Unternehmen gut beraten, den bislang weltweit Exkludierten zu helfen, eine solche Ordnung zu finden, die sie zu Interaktionspartnern werden lsst. Dies bedarf aber der Weitung des Blicks ber die lokale Umgebung hinaus und ferner der Zusammenarbeit in Ordnungsfragen mit den Regierungen, mit den NGOs und mit den anderen, auch mit konkurrierenden, Unternehmen.

Unternehmen sind keine private, sondern eine gesellschaftliche Veranstaltung, von der Gesellschaft zur Erfllung bestimmter Aufgaben eingerichtet und gesichert zum Nutzen der Gesellschaft. Damit haben sie einen gesellschaftlichen Auftrag und grundstzlich eine gesellschaftliche Legitimation. Die Marktwirtschaft mit ihren Konnexinstituten einschlielich Gewinnstreben kann daher eine Richtigkeitsvermutung in Anspruch nehmen. Diese Legitimation ist freilich indirekt aber das entzieht die demokratische Legitimation nicht. Homann, Karl: Gesellschaftliche Verantwortung der Unternehmen. Philosophische, gesellschaftstheoretische und konomische berlegungen.Wittenberg-Zentrum fr Globale Ethik.

Diskussionspapier Nr. 04-6. S.5 f.

Insgesamt ist CSR wie die Wirtschaft selbst durch Schwankungen und kulturelle Unterschiede gekennzeichnet. Das betrifft nicht nur auf binnengesellschaftliche Beziehungen zu, sondern verstrkt auch auf Internationalisierungen.

Abstrakte Wnsche, Aufrufe oder gar Verordnungen fr CSR allein knnen von Unternehmen eher als Strafreiz empfunden werden und am Ziel vorbeigehen.

Wie die Wirtschaftsethik kann sich CSR wohl am nachhaltigsten entwickeln, wenn alle Seiten einbezogen sind und Verantwortung geteilt Verantwortung meint:

Abb. 7: Nicht nur Einzelnen sollten sich an CSR beteiligen, es muss ein Fr alle wesentlichen Gruppen der Gesellschaft (z. B. in Deutschland) bestehen weiterhin und zunehmend wichtige Handlungsfelder:

http://www.bmelv.de/cln_135/SharedDocs/Downloads/Broschueren/ VerbraucherleitfadenCSR.html (des Bundesministeriums ELV) Abb. 8: Auszug aus der Studie Die gesellschaftliche Verantwortung von Unternehmen (CSR) zwischen Markt und Politik 2008, S. 63.

A COHERENT AGRO-ENERGY POLICY TO FOSTER SOCIAL

INCLUSION FOR PEASANT FAMILIES: THE ROLE OF PETROBRAS ON

THE JOO CMARA AND CEAR-MIRIM SITES (STATE OF RIO

GRANDE DO NORTE, BRASIL)

PETROBRAS

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Hubert Drouvot - Associate Professor, University of Amazonia, UNAMA, Brasil). President of the FrancoBrazilian Business Institute. Email: hubert@unama.br Cludia Magalhes Drouvot - Associate Professor, University of Amazonia, UNAMA, Brasil). Email:

cdrouvot@unama.br Preston Martin Perluss - Associate Professor, Grenoble University Graduate Business Institute (Institut dAdministration des EntreprisesIAE Grenoble), historian, member of the research group LARHRA (Laboratoire de recherche historique Rhne Alps). Email: preston.perluss@iae-grenoble.fr This article depicts the improvement in living conditions for those families of peasants (the landless peasants) who have benefited from agrarian reform (termed assentamentos i.e. homesteads) through the creation of farming cooperatives. The farming cooperative examined herein was supported by the Petrobras group following the guidelines of the Brazilian National Biofuels Program. This program seeks to foster biofuels production among peasant farmers in Brazils semi arid regions. The present research project comprises a field study which describes the various stages involved in the aforesaid program and, more critically, ascertains the conditions requisite for the programs success. Several crucial conditions stand forth as keys to success:

1) First, convincing peasants to join the project; in this regard, a charismatic leader sharing the same social origins as the farming families has played a major role in gaining the farmers confidence.

2) Second, developing a coherent set of value-adding activities that incorporate a range of by-products and waste-products (from sunflowers crops grown for biofuels, a number of corollary activities have arisen: honey, animal feed and fish farming).

3) Finally Petrobrass essential role as a partially state-owned corporation which has implemented a policy of social and environmental responsibility (assigning of a full-time engineer to oversee the project, providing farm equipment rentals needed for the crops as well as paying the salaries for two agronomic technicians working for the cooperative).

Introduction The present study concerns Brazils National Biofuel Program as provided by the Act n 3368/03; the program seeks to promote Brazilian production of biofuel on family-owned homesteads situated in the semi-arid Nordeste region. This policy was furthered by the December 6th 2004 decree n5267 which provided for the creation of a social seal of approval on petrol; in theory, only firms having been certified can commercialize the biofuel. This social legislation granted tax exemptions to industries producing biofuels should they purchase from peasant farmers. Moreover, the legislation provided for subsidized loans within the framework of the PRONAF program (Program to support Family Farming). The National Biofuel Program seeks to help poor peasant farmers achieve social insertion in the Nordeste region.

In the Brazilian states of Bahia, Rio Grande do Norte and Pernambuco, a number of biofuel production projectsall involving groups of peasant producers have been the object of research. This paper concerns one of the aforementioned sites situated in Rio Grande do Norte. The community development program benefits from key social aid offered by Petrobras, the major Brazilian Petroleum Group. The companys social and environmental policy is clearly manifested through its participation in the community project. The present study draws upon the Triple Bottom Line concept of economy/society/ecology (Elkington, 1998). From this point of view, business corporations, besides merely creating shareholder value, must undertake a policy for sustainable development while striving to satisfy the broader stakeholders needs (Lepineux, 2005) linking economic activities to broader social and environmental actions (Savitz, 2007).

Herein we shall strive to identify both the key factors for the successful social inclusion of rural peasant farmers within a community project by means biofuel production as well as the major obstacles that could impede its implementation. To grasp the projects success, several interconnected domains must be taken into account: First, the conditions giving rise to agricultural cooperatives based on participative decision making by all members (Buarque, 2002). Second, the cultural dimension which explains the reluctance to change and the difficulties encountered when trying to mobilize hitherto excluded peasants into a community-based project so as to create a cooperative (Canado e alli, 2007). Third, the concept of a circular economy (Levy, 2010) whose goal is to implement, within a holistic project, the production of co-products and by-products in order to maximize value creation for the benefit of the small farmers (Sachs, 2007). In addition, the role of networks (Ros, 2003), the weight of political agents and the commitment of businesses and major industrial firms must all be taken into consideration when examining the success of such a project to favor peasant farmers. A final aspect concerns firms social and environmental duties (DHurmires, 2005), herein we have an instance of such a policy implemented by the partially-nationalized Petrobras group.

Our method is by nature inductive. The research takes its lead from real-life experiences and not from secondary sources. Theory steps in to frame and structure the fieldwork as well as to interpret and explicate empirical observations. More precisely, our research aims to pinpoint innovative social initiatives. Our overarching goal is to highlight novel practices which should provide us with reproducible models applicable to other organizations or in other places in order to improve policies that favor family-based farming.

1. Geography of the fieldwork The townships of Joo Cmara and Cear-Mirim are located approximately 120 kilometers from the city of Natal in the Rio Grande do Nortes agreste zone, that is, a region sandwiched between the coast and the semi-arid Serto. In the Mato Grande region, some 500 families of small-scale farmers are scattered over townships. As of 1994, these families settled in the region within the framework of agrarian reform. We visited two small settlements, denoted Model 1 and Model belonging to the enrlemen (assentamento) Aracati. Our present study concerns the village named Model 1 which shelters 70 families.

Isaas Marcos, in 2006 vice president of the ARCO Association, provided us with information on the two rural communities in Joo Cmara. The families obtained permits to settle the land without receiving immediate ownership. Brazilian social strife has its storm center in demands for a right to land. Impoverished families belonging to the Movement of the Landless, the MST, are often seen living in precarious settlements squeezed between barbed wire fences surrounding a large plantation and the neighboring stretch of road.

Each family possesses 22 hectares of farmland, but given their limited means, the families only cultivate one or two hectares of beans, maize or sorghum, the rest lies fallow. To eke out their low income, individuals break rocks for public works projects and others gather wood in the surrounding forests. In this semi-arid region, much land is wooded but the term forest exaggerates what is in reality mere shrub land.

According to Isaas Marcos, living conditions have considerably improved under Lulas presidency. The majority of families receive welfare benefits. Scarely a handful of families do not receive welfare benefits and even the latter obtain donations in the form of such necessities as bottled gas. All the children attend school, a school bus provides the shuttle service. Mornings are reserved for home chores and extra curricular activities, classes take place in the afternoon and evenings. Two meals and two snacks are provided daily.

2. Project Background Francisco Evangelista, engineer and researcher in renewable energy at Pertrobras has been tasked with developing a sunflower-based biodiesel production program in collaboration with the local farmers. As an introduction, let us recount several of Evangelistas observations expressed during the first interview he granted the authors. His commentary will allow us to better situate the project in the overall context.

The National Biodiesel Project is quite recent : the legislation instituting the project dates from 2004 and Petrobras, whose participation was required by the Federal Government, had no experience in either agriculture or biodiesel production.

The apprenticeship phrase lasted through 2006 and 2007. From a strictly agricultural point of view, Petrobras underwent its trial experience in biofuels at the Joo Cmara site. In order to initiate the project, various formalities had to be completed:

partnership contracts had to be concluded between the small farmers association (created specifically for the occasion), the local township, and the state of Rio Grande do Norte. In the state of of Rio Grande do Norte, an initial experiment of biodiesel production from castor beans failed as there was yet no industrial production chain in operation. This brief overview illustrates the necessity of laying out coherent and coordinated policies when implementing local projects as well as organizing the processing/value chains. In various cases, processing plants for oil extraction have been built without crop inputs; in other instances, crops have been sown without the industrial purchasers adhering to their earlier promises to buy.

3. General Remarks on the Present Projects Context The competitive dilemma surrounding capital-intensive soybean plantations In reality, the castor bean crop in the Nordeste is much less than the quantities declared by the processors so as to ensure their receiving aid. In 2008, the shortfall in castor beans was compensated through the addition of soy oil and given the nationwide problems surrounding peasant farmer upgrading to soybean production, over 90% of biodiesel was obtained from soy beans.

The key issue underlying production of biodiesel fuel from soya oil arises from the fact that this crop is grown on large, highly-mechanized plantation and thus does not favor job creation. Given its cultivation requirements, soy growing remains beyond the means of small farmers. Moreover, soybean production enhances the risk of transferal from feed uses to energy uses which could lead to a rise in soybean oil prices, a staple for both humans and animals. Soya oil is readily available as a byproduct of the soya cakes used for animal feed sold not only in Brazil but throughout the world. Were biodiesel prices attractive, the industry might concentrate on this product to the detriment of food-based products and thus lead to heightened consumer prices. Therein lies a motive for seeking non comestible crops to fulfill this role. From this point of view, the cooperatives farmers have been experimenting with other non edible oilseed crops grown in the semi arid region, namely the pinho manso or jatropha.

The Issue of Small Farmers incomes Small-scale family farmers occupy the earlier stages of the value chain. For a major firm such as Petrobras, before bringing social and ecological solutions to bear, a division of profits had to been shared between the various agents involved in the project. Obviously, the oilseed farmers seek profits from the crops. A fair price must be ensured for their crops; otherwise they will not raise such plants since much less risk surrounds edible crops grown for personal consumption or sale on local markets.

Petrobrass engagement with the aforesaid families narrows down to furnishing aid towards cultivating sunflowers and collecting the seeds for processing into biodiesel.

Henceforth, we shall focus on the holistic project comprising merely 16 families who are involved in the farmers cooperative, the COPEC.

The question of climatic risks Crop yields in the non irrigated, semi-arid region of the Nordeste are highly irregular as a result of climatic vagaries: the region receives little rainfall and yields vary from year to year.

In early June 2007, during a paper presented at the seminar on Energy Diversification held at Natal, Ulysses da Costa equally a Petrobras engineer, displayed the variations in production levels of grain between the years 2004 and 2005 for Rio Grande do Norte, as shown below in Table I.

Table 1: Variation in Grain Production in the Rio Grande do Norte between Source: Costa Soares, Petrobras, Natal Biodiesel producers must take into account these enormous supply variations due to weather patterns. Given these imponderables, should provision be made for large storage facilities? Continuous production of biodiesel would require such storage to ensure operations outside of harvest time. More crucially, with an unregulated market, these supply vicissitudes in grains or oilseeds impact on prices:

given the threat of prix oscillations, what mechanisms might guarantee a minimum income for the family farmers?

Uncertain incomes and dependency on support agencies Those farmers we have met are nearly destitute; with no financial wherewithal, they cannot undertake oilseed cultivation for biofuels. As an example, to plow and sow at planting season, they need both a tractor and a sowing machine. This dependency necessitates strict organization and a political pressure that can be exerted on the authorities given that during the sowing season, tractors and agricultural equipment are in strong demand. An agricultural cooperative enables the purchase of various tractors and equipment which may be shared and thus reduce climatic risks and strengthen their weight in negotiation.

4. Petrobrass crucial role Bedeviled with the small farmers precariousness and the lack of serious coordination among the various political authorities, Petrobras chose to directly manage the project we describe herein; the company urged the farmers to form an organization and for certain members within it to unite in a cooperative.

Since 2004, Petrobras has collaborated with these two rural communities to ensure sunflower crops for biodiesel production. The arguments in favor of sunflower crops rather than castor beans adduce several factors : foremost, castor beans contain ricin, a highly toxic protein which precludes the beans use in animal feed; secondly, castor-bean oil is exceedingly viscous and cannot be directly used as engine fuel.

In 2007, the decision was taken to create a true farmers cooperative that would implement a collective project involving 16 member families. The project sought to raise cattle with sunflower leave-based feed, produce honey using sunflowers, extract biodiesel from the seeds and create fish farms. These projects benefited from the advice of Canadian university researchers. The overall aim reposes on the concept of a circular economy, expounded as follows by Louis Chaussade (Barr et Chauveau, 2008) chief executive officer for Suez Environment: we have to create an economy capable of adding value to those items which are undervalued in order to reemploy systematically and intelligently all materials.

On the scale of the cooperative, the SEBRAE, a public organization which aids small businesses, contributed to detailing a policy for enhancing the value of the secondary products. Moreover, the cooperative concluded a commercial agreement with the state which in turn agreed to purchase part of the harvest for supplying various public institutions as schools and hospitals.

Background description of the COPECs president Native to the state of Santa Catarina (region in Southern Brazil), Livnia Frizon has long been an activist in the Movement for the Landless (MST). Today, separated from the movement, she has settled with her family at Canudos within the framework of a federal land distribution program. While president of the ARCO association, in early 2008, she equally became president of the Canudos Producers Cooperative (COPEC). The latter came into being at the behest of Petrobras, the cooperative status constituting a necessary legal condition so that Petrobras, as a mixed enterprise in which the Brazilian federal government holds a minority interest, might enter into a contractual arrangement to finance the local development project.

With her strong personality, Livnia Frizon had three fundamental qualities for presiding over the COPEC :

- That of her Italian immigrant family background, her family had a long history of cooperation with other families. This associative culture, common to Southern and Southeastern Brazil, does not have an equivalent in the Nordeste for the latter region has been historical dominated by large landlords, organized within the system of coronels. From the beginning of the Portuguese colonial period, aristocratic families received allotments of enormous expanses of landthe hereditary captaineries from the monarchy. In this archaic system, some of whose elements have prevailed until the present, the richly endowed landlords control vast territories and have oppressed the small farmers who live in poverty. Despite repeated uprisings over the centuries, the penurious farmers have never managed to organize themselves. Ms Frizon marvels at the crafts skills of the small landowners in southern Brazil. Whether involved in producing foodstuffs, textile goods, leather goods, or wooden goods, these cottage-industry activities enable the peasants to earn extra income. As a challenge, President Frizon sought to instill a similar industrious spirit in the Canudo peasants while heightening their awareness in the necessity of collective work required for the aforesaid cottage industries.



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