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Connection of Finnish and Russian chronology for the beginning of the Early Metal Period Valerij Patrushev has suggested that the use of Textile ceramics (or spun-speckled ceramics) began in the Middle and Upper Volga area at the end of the 2nd millennium BC and continued to the middle of the 1st millennium BC. The ceramics was used most intensively during the 8th 6th centuries BC (Patrushev, 1992. P. 5255).

In the Karelian Republic the appearance of Textile ceramics is dated earlier. Both A. Zulnikov (1999:79) and Mark Kosmenko (1992:148) dated it to the middle of the 2nd millennium BC. Here one should also note that this chronology is based on an uncalibrated context dating of phenomena. Therefore, it is probable that they can be in accordance with the Finnish chronology for Textile ceramics after AMS-dates have been obtained from this material.

Interesting new information has recently been obtained concerning Early Textile ceramics in Russia. According to K. Voronin (1996; 1998) the earliest dating of Textile ceramics might be synchronous with the Fatyanovo-Balanovo and the Tsirkovo cultures during the first and the second quarters of the 2nd millennium BC (Voronin, 1998. P. 320). Voronin considers the 17th and the 16th centuries BC to be the possible terminus post quem for Textile ceramics in Russia. In the Mstinsk area Early Textile ceramics is connected with Pit-Combed Ware. In the Jaroslavl, Ivanovo and Kostroma regions it occurs together with Late Neolithic ceramics (Voronin, 1998. P. 320).

In general it can be said that although new AMS-dates of Finnish Textile ceramics are slightly earlier than the chronology for Textile ceramics and the Seima axes, it is still possible to match them by calibrating in accordance with each other.

Discussion When thinking about the transition from the Eneolithic Period to the Early Metal Period, Nina Gurina paid attention to the observation that although in the Early Metal Period dwelling sites there still existed a large number of small flint implements such as scrapers, a distinct change in the tradition of making small stone implements occurred. In northwestern Russia it is also possible to find clean complexes without debris from the manufacturing process of implements. In addition, coarse implements such as stone axes and adzes are absent (Gurina, 1961. P. 84).

Some of these observations can also be made in the Finnish Early Metal Period dwelling sites.

In many Textile ceramic sites the amount of flint is very small. This may indicate that the raw material was difficult to obtain both from western or eastern sources but it may indicate the importance of metal instead of stone implements as well. In northern Finland the dwelling sites with Textile ceramics still involve a considerable number of flint artifacts and flakes. This may be the result of the continuation of cultural relations with the populations around the eastern flint sources in the region of the Karelian Republic.

The definition of the Early Metal Period has traditionally been seen either through the spread of bronze implements or through ceramics. Both of these are good indicators of a new culture in Finland and their general dating is also in accordance with each other. On the basis of this we can say that the terminus post quem for the beginning of the Early Metal Period in Finland is approximately calBC according to the most recent AMS-datings. However, more evidence is needed for this dating.

The dating of the Bronze Age to 1600 calBC is on a more solid basis, because datings from this period have been obtained from several areas in Finland. In addition to this, the chronology of the Seima axes supports this date.

The most recent AMS-datings have been made from the ceramic samples from eastern Finland.

Therefore, the absolute chronology for the end of the Kiukainen culture and the beginning of the Bronze Age is not as well fixed. Still, some evidence is available. Unto Salo (1996:340) presented the calibrated chronology which places the beginning of the Bronze Age to 1500 calBC. In his most recent chronological table Christian Carpelan (1999:kuva 8) dates the appearance of Textile ceramics and Lovozero ceramics to ca. 1600 calBC. This means that the beginning of the Bronze Age dates clearly later than that of the eastern Early Metal Period.

One essential question relating to the beginning of the Early Metal Period and the Bronze Age is the continuity or discontinuity in tradition. The answer to this problem is all but clear. Still, some comments can be made concerning the problematics. The use of Asbestos ceramics seems to end, at the latest, synchronously with the emergence of Textile ceramics. On the basis of the data available today, one could even postulate a short hiatus between the end of Asbestos ceramics and the beginning of Textile ceramics. This makes it possible to present a hypothesis that Textile ceramics represents the products of a new population or new individuals arriving in the very sparsely populated areas in eastern and northern Finland.

The situation was slightly different in the coastal area of the Baltic Sea. The Bronze Age began with the arrival of small groups of people who came into contact with the Kiukainen population. Although small in number, these newcomers influenced the culture of the coastal area very much and caused the basis of the economy to turn from hunting and fishing to a greater emphasis on agriculture.

Experiments with cultivation were made also in eastern Finland but they did not lead to changes in the economy in general. When bearing in mind that some other important features in living, such as differences in burial tradition, discerned much between the coastal area and mainland Finland, there are reasons to accept the division of the period into eastern and western cultures. This division does not exclude that the populations may have been in contact with each other. As an indicator of this the existence of an eastern type of bronze axe in southwestern Finland can be mentioned. Still, both the eastern and the western populations clearly had cultural relations further east and west, which makes it possible to make the distinction into the Scandinavian Bronze Age and the Eastern Early Metal Period in Finland.

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